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Glossary

BioScience.com.pk try the best to avoid the use of medical terms that could make it more difficult to understand the information on this website. Still, there are a number of terms that can't be avoided and that are useful to know because they are so often used by the doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals with whom you might speak. The list below includes the terms used on BioScience.com.pk for which we have provided definitions.

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Term Definition
Acute Myelocytic Leukemia

Also known as: Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, AML


bone marrow disease that is characterized by the production of large numbers of an immature granulocyte (a neutrophil -- the most common, basophil, or eosinophil) that replace other normal cells in the marrow.

Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, AML

Also known as: Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, AML


bone marrow disease that is characterized by the production of large numbers of an immature granulocyte (a neutrophil -- the most common, basophil, or eosinophil) that replace other normal cells in the marrow.

Acute Phase Reactant

A protein that increases or decreases in concentration with conditions that cause acute tissue inflammation or trauma.

Acute Sample

In the clinical laboratory, pertaining to samples taken at a time when a patient initially exhibits signs and symptoms of a disease or condition

Adenomatous polyp

Also known as: Tubular adenoma


Abnormal growth of cells that form the glands in the lining of the colon or rectum; while benign, may become cancerous over time

Adjuvant therapy

Treatment used to assist a primary therapy (such as surgery) in the prevention, improvement, or cure of a disease (such as adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer)

Adrenal Gland

Also known as: Suprarenal gland


One of a pair of glands located above each kidney that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream. Each gland has two parts that perform different functions.
1. The adrenal cortex produces and secretes hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone and sex steroids. They are involved in many different body functions.
2. The adrenal medulla produces and secretes catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and norepinephrine.

Aerobic

Living or occurring in an oxygen-rich environment

Afibrinogenemia

The absence of fibrinogen production

Alkalosis

A condition in which a there is a shift in the acid-base balance of the body to have more base than normal, often causing the pH of the blood and body tissues to rise above the healthy range (7.35-7.45). It may have respiratory causes such as hyperventilation and pneumonia or metabolic causes such as prolonged vomiting and severe dehydration.

Allele

Any one of the possible alternative forms in which a specific gene can occur

Allergen

Substance (e.g., ragweed pollen) that can cause an allergy

Alopecia
Ambiguous genitalia

Sex organs (genitals) that are not distinctly male or female in appearance. It is a condition present at birth (congenital) that results from a disruption in the formation of sex organs during fetal development.

Amenorrhea

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