Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) It is also known as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). It is defined as the amount of oxygen consumed during the process of degradation and eventual stabilization of unstable organic substances by the biochemical activities of aerobic and other microbes. This degradation of the chemical complex is a desirable process and the final product is called stabilized…
There are certain bacteria which cannot be stained by Gram's method. In 1882, Paul Ehrlich developed a method of staining such type of bacteria. This method was named, and still known as acid-fast staining and the bacteria were named as acid-fast bacteria. In the same year, Ehrlich's method was improved by Zehil and Neelsen. Nowadays, Ziehl-Neelsen method is believed as…
In 1883 (originally published in 1884), Dr. Hans Christian Gram (1853-1938) developed a technique for the classification of bacteria into two broad groups, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. It is the most important staining technique for the classification and differentiation of bacteria. The Gram stain consist of four reagents; crystal violet (use as a primary dye), Gram's iodine (use as a mordant),…
“Gut flora is a complex community of organisms that inhabit human and animal digestive system”. Relation between humans and gut flora is mutualistic. Bacteria in the digestive system assist in nutrient metabolism, vitamin production, and waste processing. They also aid in the host's immune system response to pathogenic bacteria.
CHOLERA is a specific infectious disease that affects the lower portion of the intestine and is characterized by violent purging, vomiting, muscular cramp, suppression of urine and rapid collapse. It can a terrifying disease with massive diarrhea. The patient’s fluid losses are enormous every day with severe rapid dehydration, death comes within hours.
Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”. Urine consists of various microscopic, insoluble, solid elements in suspension. These elements are classified as organized or unorganized. Organized substances include red blood cells, white blood cells, epithelial cells, casts, bacteria, and parasites. The unorganized substances are crystalline and amorphous material. These elements are suspended…
Routine care and proper maintenance of microscope will ensure good performance over the years. In addition to this, a properly maintained and clean microscope will always be ready for use at any time. Professional cleaning and maintenance should be considered when routine techniques fail to produce optimal performance of the microscope.   Cleaning and maintenance supplies   Dust cover: When…

EXAMINATION OF BLOOD SMEAR

A blood smear is examined for:   Red cells: Morphology, immature forms, inclusion bodies, arrangement of cells. White cells: Differential count, abnormal or immature forms. Platelets: Adequacy, abnormal forms. Parasites: Malaria, filaria.   A peripheral blood smear has three parts: Head, body, and tail. Also read: PREPARATION OF BLOOD SMEAR BY WEDGE METHOD.   A blood smear should be examined…

MORPHOLOGY OF PLATELETS

Platelets are small, 1-3 μm in diameter, purple structures with tiny irregular projections on surface. In blood films prepared from non-anticoagulated blood (i.e. direct fingerstick), they occur in clumps. If platelet count is done on automated blood cell counters using EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample, about 1% of persons show falsely low count due to the presence in them of EDTA dependent…
For meaningful interpretation, absolute count of leukocytes should be reported. These are obtained as follows:   Absolute Leukocyte Count = Leukocyte% × Total Leukocyte Count/ml     Neutrophilia:   An absolute neutrophil count greater than 7500/μl is termed as neutrophilia or neutrophilic leukocytosis.   Causes   Acute bacterial infections: Abscess, pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, acute rheumatic fever, urinary tract infection. Tissue…
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