Displaying articles by tag: Notes

Dayyal Dg. in Zoology
Sunday, 11 February 2018 09:35 Featured

TORSION AND DETORSION IN MOLLUSCA

TORSION   Torsion is a process in which the viscero-pallium rotates anti-clockwise through 180° from its initial position during larval development. So that the mantle cavity, with its pallial complex, is brought to the front of the body in the adult.   How Torsion Occurs   Torsion is not an…

  • Zoology
  • Zoology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Torsion in Mollusca
  • Detorsion in Mollusca
  • How Torsion Occurs In Mollusca
  • Torsion and Coiling
Read 18651 times
Dayyal Dg. in Chemistry
Friday, 19 January 2018 09:36

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISTILLED WATER AND DEIONIZED WATER

You can compare the deionized water vs distilled water, however, to mention that the distilled water is that the same as deionized water may be a mistake. The terms “distilled water” and “deionized water” are usually misunderstood. during this article, you'll notice the reason to grasp the variations and similarities…

  • Article
  • Notes
  • Chemistry
  • Chemistry Notes
  • Distilled Water
  • Deionized Water
  • RO Water
  • Reverse Osmosis Water
  • Deionized Water pH
  • pH of Deionized Water Vs Tap Water
  • Distilled Vs Deionized Water
  • Can You Drink Deionized Water
  • Is Deionized Water Bad for Your Skin
  • Deionized Water Hazards
  • Truth About Drinking Deionized Water
Read 2417 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 28 September 2017 09:23

TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

Total serum thyroxine includes both free and protein-bound thyroxine and is usually measured by competitive immunoassay. Normal level in adults is 5.0-12.0 μg/dl.   Test for total thyroxine or free thyroxine is usually combined with TSH measurement and together they give the best assessment of thyroid function.   Causes of…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Total Thyroxine T4 Normal Range
  • Total Thyroxine Test
  • Total Thyroxine Vs Free Thyroxine
  • Total Thyroxine Levels
Read 5537 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 27 September 2017 20:34

Disorders of Thyroid Gland: Hypothyroidism & Hyperthyroidism

Among the endocrine disorders, disorders of the thyroid are common and are only next in frequency to diabetes mellitus. They are more common in women than in men. Functional thyroid disorders can be divided into two types depending on the activity of the thyroid gland: hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormones), and…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Thyroid Disorders
  • Thyroid Test
  • Thyroid Symptoms
  • Thyroid Hormone
  • Thyroid Acropachy
  • Thyroid Cancer
Read 6561 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Friday, 22 September 2017 08:37

FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process of oogenesis. The ova are released by the process of ovulation in a cyclical manner at regular intervals. Ovary contains numerous follicles that contain ova in various stages of development. During each menstrual cycle, up…

  • Infertility
  • Infertility in Female
  • Female Infertility
  • Causes of Infertility in Female
  • Investigation for Infertility in Female
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
Read 3746 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 21 September 2017 19:03

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that produce spermatozoa and secrete testosterone), a paired system of ducts comprising of epididymis, vasa deferentia, and ejaculatory ducts (collect, store, and conduct spermatozoa), paired seminal vesicles and a single prostate gland (produce nutritive and lubricating…

  • Infertility
  • Infertility in Male
  • Male Infertility
  • Causes of Infertility in Male
  • Investigation for Infertility in Male
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
Read 3170 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 20:21

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is the upper part surrounding the entrance of the esophagus and is lined by the mucus-secreting epithelium. The epithelium of the fundus and the body of the stomach is composed of different cell types including: (i)…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Pathology Notes
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Gastric Anatomy
  • Gastric Physiology
Read 5466 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer). Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion and is mediated by vagus nerve. This response is abolished by vagotomy. In this test, after determining BAO, insulin…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Tests for Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 5034 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac failure, or non-cooperative patient. Pyloric stenosis: Obstruction of gastric outlet can elevate gastric acid output due to raised gastrin (following…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Contraindications to Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4431 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:18

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e. basal and peak acid output). This test was introduced in the past mainly for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Indications for Gastric Analysis
  • Recurrent Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
  • Pernicious Anemia
  • Malignant Ulcer
  • Peptic Ulcer Dyspepsia
Read 5074 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 05 September 2017 18:51

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion. Basal acid output (BAO) is the amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted in the absence of any external stimuli (visual, olfactory, or auditory). Maximum acid…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Method of Gastric Analysis
  • Gastric Analysis Method
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Method for Combined Gastrointestional Feeding and Aspiration
  • Gastric Aspiration
  • Gastric Problems
  • Gastric Ulcer
Read 12975 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 30 August 2017 18:26

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for Parasites A random specimen of stool (at least 4 ml or 4 cm³) is collected in a clean, dry, container with a tightly fitting lid (a tin box, plastic box, glass jar, or waxed cardboard…

  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Microscopic Examination of Feces
  • Examination of Feces
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Technique
Read 10644 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 29 August 2017 20:21

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH Figure 845.1: Chemical examinations done on fecal sample Test for Occult Blood in Stools Presence of blood in feces which is not…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Examination of Feces
  • Chemical Examination of Feces
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 9408 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 27 August 2017 20:46

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water. 1. Glycosuria In renal glycosuria, glucose is excreted in urine, while blood glucose level is normal. This is because of a specific tubular lesion…

  • Laboratory Tests to Evaluate Tubular Function
  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Renal Function Test
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4297 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 27 August 2017 08:15

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of glomerular damage in diabetes mellitus is occurrence of microalbuminuria (albuminuria in the range of 30 to 300 mg/24 hours). An albuminuria > 300-mg/24 hour is termed clinical or overt and indicates significant glomerular damage. (See…

  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Renal Function Test
Read 1631 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 26 August 2017 20:43

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Although convenient, they are insensitive markers of glomerular function.   Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)   Urea is produced in the liver from amino acids (ingested or tissue-derived). Amino acids are utilized to produce…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Renal Function Test
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Methods for Estimation of Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Methods for Estimation of Serum Creatinine
Read 4690 times
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