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Glossary

BioScience.com.pk try the best to avoid the use of medical terms that could make it more difficult to understand the information on this website. Still, there are a number of terms that can't be avoided and that are useful to know because they are so often used by the doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals with whom you might speak. The list below includes the terms used on BioScience.com.pk for which we have provided definitions.

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Term Definition
Chloroquine

Drug used in the treatment and prevention of malaria

Chromosome

Threadlike structure in every cell nucleus that carries the inheritance factors (genes) composed of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, the gene material) and a protein (usually histone). A human cell normally contains 46 chromosomes, or 22 homologous pairs and 1 pair of sex chromosomes; one member of each pair of chromosomes is derived from each parent.

Chronic

A condition or illness that arises slowly over days or weeks and may or may not resolve with treatment. It is the opposite of acute.

Cirrhosis

Chronic disease condition of the liver in which fibrous tissue and nodules replace normal tissue, interfering with blood flow and normal functions of the organ

Clone

(noun) Cell, group of cells, or organisms that descend from a single cell or organism; clones are genetically identical

(verb) To replicate or produce identical copies

CNS

Also known as: central nervous system

One of the two main divisions of the human nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord; the other division is the peripheral nervous system.

Cognitive

(n. cognition) Relating to the mental process of acquiring knowledge through awareness, perception, intuition, and reasoning

Collagen

A group of proteins that form elongated fibers that are the main component in connective tissues such as skin, ligaments, tendons, cartilage and bone

Colonization

The presence or growth of bacteria on or in the body; those who are colonized may or may not develop an infection and/or may spread the bacteria to others, in whom they may cause disease.

Colonoscopy

Examination of the rectum and entire colon with a flexible lighted instrument

Colposcopy

a procedure in which a health practitioner uses a lighted magnifying instrument to examine a woman's cervix for abnormal areas, to take samples for biopsy, and/or treat as indicated

Congenital

Present at birth

Conjugated bilirubin

A water-soluble form of bilirubin formed in the liver by the chemical addition of sugar molecules to unconjugated bilirubin; when present in the blood, conjugated bilirubin can become chemically bound to albumin, forming delta-bilirubin (also known as biliprotein).

Connective tissue

Tissue that connects organs or other structures within the body. It supports, attaches and encloses organs, fills the spaces between them, and forms ligaments and tendons.

Convalescent Sample

In the clinical laboratory, pertaining to samples taken at a time when a patient is recovering from a disease or condition

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