BioScience.com.pk try the best to avoid the use of medical terms that could make it more difficult to understand the information on this website. Still, there are a number of terms that can't be avoided and that are useful to know because they are so often used by the doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals with whom you might speak. The list below includes the terms used on BioScience.com.pk for which we have provided definitions.
|Abnormal Fibrinolysis|| |
Overactivity of the process normally responsible for clearing blood clots from blood vessels
|ABO Incompatibility|| |
ABO incompatibility is a common and generally mild type of haemolytic disease in babies. The term haemolytic disease means that red blood cells are broken down more quickly than usual which can cause jaundice anaemia and in very severe cases can cause death. During pregnancy this breakdown of red blood cells in the baby may occur if the mother and baby’s blood types are incompatible and if these different blood types come into direct contact with each other and antibodies are formed.
|Acanthosis nigricans|| |
Darkening and thickening of the skin around the neck, underarms, and skin folds; can be caused by elevated levels of insulin in the blood and is often associated with obesity
A compound that contains at least one hydrogen atom and can react with a base to form a salt; a chemical with a pH less than 7. An example of acid in the body is hydrochloric acid (HCl) involved in digestion in the stomach.
|Acid-Base Balance|| |
The body's maintenance of a healthy pH range for blood and tissues that is slightly basic (pH between 7.35 - 7.45). This balance is achieved through the use of systems in the blood (which help to minimize pH changes) and by the lungs and kidneys, which eliminate excess amounts of acids or bases from the body.
A condition in which there is a shift in the acid-base balance of the body to have more acid than normal, often causing the pH of the blood and body tissues to fall below the healthy range (7.35-7.45). It may be caused by decreased CO2 eliimination in respiratory disorders such as emphysema, by metabolic problems such as kidney disease and diabetes, or as the result of ingesting poisons (ethlylene glycol, methanol) or overdosing on certain medication (salicylates); it can also be caused by losing HCO3, as in diarrhea.
A condition in adults resulting from excess growth hormone characterized by enlargement of the hands and feet, change in shoe size, gradual changes in facial features, including protrusion of the lower jaw and brow, and enlargement of the nasal bone
|Acute coronary syndrome|| |
Also known as: ACS
|Acute Myelocytic Leukemia|| |
Also known as: Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, AML
|Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, AML|| |
Also known as: Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, AML
|Acute Phase Reactant|
|Adenomatous polyp|| |
Also known as: Tubular adenoma
|Adjuvant therapy|| |
Treatment used to assist a primary therapy (such as surgery) in the prevention, improvement, or cure of a disease (such as adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer)
|Adrenal Gland|| |
Also known as: Suprarenal gland
Living or occurring in an oxygen-rich environment
The absence of fibrinogen production
A condition in which a there is a shift in the acid-base balance of the body to have more base than normal, often causing the pH of the blood and body tissues to rise above the healthy range (7.35-7.45). It may have respiratory causes such as hyperventilation and pneumonia or metabolic causes such as prolonged vomiting and severe dehydration.
Any one of the possible alternative forms in which a specific gene can occur
Substance (e.g., ragweed pollen) that can cause an allergy
|Ambiguous genitalia|| |
Sex organs (genitals) that are not distinctly male or female in appearance. It is a condition present at birth (congenital) that results from a disruption in the formation of sex organs during fetal development.
|Amniotic fluid|| |
Fluid surrounding and supporting a fetus
1) In molecular diagnostics, a process by which multiple copies of genetic material (RNA, DNA) are generated so as to produce adequate levels of the target to be detected or quantitated
Living or occurring in an oxygen-free environment
Also known as: Test
Severe allergic reaction that can cause intensely itchy welts (hives) on the skin, low blood pressure, and difficulty breathing. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening so those who have been affected by it may be advised to carry an emergency injection of epinephrine.
Hormones that are responsible for the induction of sexual differentiation and produce secondary male physical characteristics such as a deep voice and facial hair. An example is the hormone testosterone. They are also present in females as precursors to female hormones (such as estrogen).
Congenital defect that occurs during fetal brain development when the neural tube fails to close properly at the head. The result is the lack of development of a large portion of the brain and skull.
Having an abnormal number of chromosomes
Weakened portion of a blood vessel wall that widens or bulges and may eventually rupture; a ruptured aneurysm can bleed heavily and may be fatal.
Weakened portion of a blood vessel wall that widens or bulges and may eventually rupture; a ruptured aneurysm can bleed heavily and may be fatal.An allergic reaction involving the skin and deeper (subcutaneous) layers that is characterized by patches of swelling
Medical procedure used to widen blood vessels that have been narrowed or blocked. During the procedure, a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into the body (usually through a small incision in the groin). The catheter is guided to the site of the blockage using X-rays and injected dye. The balloon on the catheter is then gently inflated to flatten the blockage and open the blood vessel.
An egg is not released by the ovaries during a menstrual cycle
At or toward the front
|Antibiotic resistance|| |
Ability of a microorganism to grow despite the presence of an antibiotic
1. Drug that delays blood clotting (e.g., heparin, warfarin); used in patients with or at risk for blood clots
1. Substance that causes the production of an antibody that binds to the antigen in order to damage, neutralize or kill it.
|Antigen Testing|| |
Also known as: Quantity Testing
A class of drugs that is used to treat allergies, hypersensitivity reactions, and the symptoms of colds. These drugs work by reducing the effects of histamine, a naturally-occurring substance that is released in response to inflammation and allergies.
Process of removing a specific component from blood, such as platelets or white blood cells, and returning the remaining components to the donor; allows for more of one particular component to be collected than could be separated from a unit of whole blood
Short pauses or cessations in breathing
General term for a protein without its characteristic prosthetic group, which may be a metal or a small organic compound; for example, the protein apotransferrin combines with iron to form transferrin, and protein apoceruloplasmin combines with copper to form the enzyme ceruloplasmin.
Changes in the rhythm of heartbeats or in the strength of heart contractions
Fluid buildup in the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity
Procedure used to detect or measure a substance or reaction; test
Common disorder of the arteries in which deposits consisting mostly of cholesterol and lipids form on the inner arterial wall. As a result, the vessels become nonelastic and narrowed, leading to decreased blood flow. One of the most important examples is coronary artery disease.
|Atrial Fibrillation|| |
Condition characterized by an irregular, often rapid, heart rhythm
|Auer Bodies|| |
Also known as: Auer Rods
|Auer Rods|| |
Also known as: Auer Bodies