Glossary

BioScience.com.pk try the best to avoid the use of medical terms that could make it more difficult to understand the information on this website. Still, there are a number of terms that can't be avoided and that are useful to know because they are so often used by the doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals with whom you might speak. The list below includes the terms used on BioScience.com.pk for which we have provided definitions.

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Term Definition
Androgens

Hormones that are responsible for the induction of sexual differentiation and produce secondary male physical characteristics such as a deep voice and facial hair. An example is the hormone testosterone. They are also present in females as precursors to female hormones (such as estrogen).

Anencephaly

Congenital defect that occurs during fetal brain development when the neural tube fails to close properly at the head. The result is the lack of development of a large portion of the brain and skull.

Aneuploidy

Having an abnormal number of chromosomes

Aneurysm

Weakened portion of a blood vessel wall that widens or bulges and may eventually rupture; a ruptured aneurysm can bleed heavily and may be fatal.

Angioedema

Weakened portion of a blood vessel wall that widens or bulges and may eventually rupture; a ruptured aneurysm can bleed heavily and may be fatal.An allergic reaction involving the skin and deeper (subcutaneous) layers that is characterized by patches of swelling

Angioplasty

Medical procedure used to widen blood vessels that have been narrowed or blocked.  During the procedure, a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into the body (usually through a small incision in the groin). The catheter is guided to the site of the blockage using X-rays and injected dye. The balloon on the catheter is then gently inflated to flatten the blockage and open the blood vessel.

Anovulation

An egg is not released by the ovaries during a menstrual cycle

Anterior

At or toward the front

Antibiotic resistance

Ability of a microorganism to grow despite the presence of an antibiotic

Antibody
Antibodies also called immunoglobulins are large Y-shaped proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens or targets such as viruses and bacteria. Every different antibody recognizes a specific foreign antigen.
Antibody

Also Known As: Ig; Antibody; Immune serum globulin; Immune globulin; Gamma globulin



1) Special proteins produced by the body in response to foreign substances including bacteria and viruses; there are five structurally distinct classes of immunoglobulins produced by plasma cells in the bone marrow and other lymphoid tissue that bind to and neutralize foreign substances (antigens). The five major kinds of immunoglobulins are A, D, E, G and M.

2) A solution made from human blood plasma that contains concentrated antibodies that protect against specific diseases, such as short-term protection against certain infections and Rh sensitization during pregnancy; it is made from human blood plasma that has been pooled, processed from donated blood, and purified.

Anticoagulant

1. Drug that delays blood clotting (e.g., heparin, warfarin); used in patients with or at risk for blood clots
2. Substance used to prevent clotting in blood used for transfusions and certain laboratory tests

Antigen

1. Substance that causes the production of an antibody that binds to the antigen in order to damage, neutralize or kill it.
2. The presence of certain antigens on blood cells is the basis for blood typing for transfusions. Antigens that are present on tissue allow for donor-recipient matching in transplant medicine.

Antigen Testing

Also known as: Quantity Testing


Quantity testing measures how much of a particular substance or analyte is present. This type of testing can measure amounts of coagulation factors, hormones, enzymes, and many other substances. It does not, however, evaluate how well the substance is working or performing its role in the body.

Antihistamine

A class of drugs that is used to treat allergies, hypersensitivity reactions, and the symptoms of colds. These drugs work by reducing the effects of histamine, a naturally-occurring substance that is released in response to inflammation and allergies.