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Glossary

BioScience.com.pk try the best to avoid the use of medical terms that could make it more difficult to understand the information on this website. Still, there are a number of terms that can't be avoided and that are useful to know because they are so often used by the doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals with whom you might speak. The list below includes the terms used on BioScience.com.pk for which we have provided definitions.

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Term Definition
Narcolepsy

A chronic condition characterized by sudden uncontrolled sleep spells during the day

Nasopharynx

The area at the back of the nasal passages and above and behind the soft palate

Neonate

Newborn in its first month of life

Neoplasm

Also known as: Tumor


Growth of tissue characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation; benign or malignant, localized or invasive

Nephrotic Syndrome

Damage to the glomeruli capillaries in the kidneys' filtering units, the nephrons; it leads to the loss of albumin and other proteins into the urine.

Neuroendocrine

1. Pertaining to the interaction between the nervous system and glands that produce hormones
2. Relating to or involving cells that produce hormones in response to the stimulation of nerves or the nervous system

Neurofibrillary tangles

A collection of twisted protein filaments found within nerve cells in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease

Neurologic

Pertaining to nerves and the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord

Neutropenia

Decreased number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell

Neutrophil

Also known as: Granulocyte


Normally the most abundant type of white blood cell in healthy adults

Next Generation Sequencing

Also known as: Next-gen sequencing; NGS

A type of laboratory test method that rapidly sequences large amounts of DNA; sequencing determines the order of DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in a person's genetic code. Changes in the building blocks (mutations) in the regions of DNA that are responsible for making proteins can lead to genetic disorders. Next-gen sequencing can look for mutations in any of the protein-producing regions of DNA, instead of looking for just a few specific mutations. In healthcare, this method may be used to help identify inherited or acquired genetic diseases (e.g., cancers), especially those caused by less common mutations.

Next-gen sequencing

Also known as: Next-gen sequencing; NGS

A type of laboratory test method that rapidly sequences large amounts of DNA; sequencing determines the order of DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in a person's genetic code. Changes in the building blocks (mutations) in the regions of DNA that are responsible for making proteins can lead to genetic disorders. Next-gen sequencing can look for mutations in any of the protein-producing regions of DNA, instead of looking for just a few specific mutations. In healthcare, this method may be used to help identify inherited or acquired genetic diseases (e.g., cancers), especially those caused by less common mutations.

NGS

Also known as: Next-gen sequencing

A type of laboratory test method that rapidly sequences large amounts of DNA; sequencing determines the order of DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in a person's genetic code. Changes in the building blocks (mutations) in the regions of DNA that are responsible for making proteins can lead to genetic disorders. Next-gen sequencing can look for mutations in any of the protein-producing regions of DNA, instead of looking for just a few specific mutations. In healthcare, this method may be used to help identify inherited or acquired genetic diseases (e.g., cancers), especially those caused by less common mutations.

Non-palpable

Not perceivable by touch

Normal flora

Microorganisms that live harmlessly on or in the body and do not cause disease unless the normal protective barriers (skin, mucosa) are compromised

NSAIDs

Also known as: Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs


Group of painkillers that includes drugs such as ibuprofen and aspirin; they reduce fever as well as decrease pain and inflammation; can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers

Nucleus

The structure in cells that contains the chromosomes, genes, DNA.

Nutrient Medium
Also known as: Media
 
Material that provides the proper nutritional environment to promote the growth of microorganisms

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