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Glossary

BioScience.com.pk try the best to avoid the use of medical terms that could make it more difficult to understand the information on this website. Still, there are a number of terms that can't be avoided and that are useful to know because they are so often used by the doctors, nurses, and other medical professionals with whom you might speak. The list below includes the terms used on BioScience.com.pk for which we have provided definitions.

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Term Definition
Antibody
Antibodies also called immunoglobulins are large Y-shaped proteins which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens or targets such as viruses and bacteria. Every different antibody recognizes a specific foreign antigen.
Antibody

Also Known As: Ig; Antibody; Immune serum globulin; Immune globulin; Gamma globulin



1) Special proteins produced by the body in response to foreign substances including bacteria and viruses; there are five structurally distinct classes of immunoglobulins produced by plasma cells in the bone marrow and other lymphoid tissue that bind to and neutralize foreign substances (antigens). The five major kinds of immunoglobulins are A, D, E, G and M.

2) A solution made from human blood plasma that contains concentrated antibodies that protect against specific diseases, such as short-term protection against certain infections and Rh sensitization during pregnancy; it is made from human blood plasma that has been pooled, processed from donated blood, and purified.

Anticoagulant

1. Drug that delays blood clotting (e.g., heparin, warfarin); used in patients with or at risk for blood clots
2. Substance used to prevent clotting in blood used for transfusions and certain laboratory tests

Antigen

1. Substance that causes the production of an antibody that binds to the antigen in order to damage, neutralize or kill it.
2. The presence of certain antigens on blood cells is the basis for blood typing for transfusions. Antigens that are present on tissue allow for donor-recipient matching in transplant medicine.

Antigen Testing

Also known as: Quantity Testing


Quantity testing measures how much of a particular substance or analyte is present. This type of testing can measure amounts of coagulation factors, hormones, enzymes, and many other substances. It does not, however, evaluate how well the substance is working or performing its role in the body.

Antihistamine

A class of drugs that is used to treat allergies, hypersensitivity reactions, and the symptoms of colds. These drugs work by reducing the effects of histamine, a naturally-occurring substance that is released in response to inflammation and allergies.

Apheresis

Process of removing a specific component from blood, such as platelets or white blood cells, and returning the remaining components to the donor; allows for more of one particular component to be collected than could be separated from a unit of whole blood

Apnea

Short pauses or cessations in breathing

Apoprotein

General term for a protein without its characteristic prosthetic group, which may be a metal or a small organic compound; for example, the protein apotransferrin combines with iron to form transferrin, and protein apoceruloplasmin combines with copper to form the enzyme ceruloplasmin.

Arrhythmia

Changes in the rhythm of heartbeats or in the strength of heart contractions

Ascites

Fluid buildup in the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity

Aspiration

Use of suction to take liquids, gases, or cells from a body cavity or area, as in aspiration biopsy

Assay

Procedure used to detect or measure a substance or reaction; test

Asymptomatic

Without symptoms.

Atherosclerosis

Common disorder of the arteries in which deposits consisting mostly of cholesterol and lipids form on the inner arterial wall. As a result, the vessels become nonelastic and narrowed, leading to decreased blood flow. One of the most important examples is coronary artery disease.

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