Initially, man tried to capture fishes by using different types of gear in different water bodies. In this method, he is able to collect only the existing fish in waters. This method of capturing the naturally existing fish is termed as capture fishery Capture fishery is still the only method used in catching fist, in huge water masses (marine water and riverine water systems). In the year 1987 the capture fishery from marine water constitutes 1.65 million tonnes.
Man developed the idea of growing selected fish. For this purpose, the fishes such as carps breeding in flowing waters are collected. They are artificially induced to breed in confined water bodies. The pituitary gland extract is injected to the breeders. The breeders under the influence of pituitary hormones, breed in these waters. This method is called induced breeding. The fish hatchlings thus obtained are called fish seed.
While growing the fish seed, man is also able to control the environmental conditions. He is able to supply additional food for their growth. The diseases common for fishes are controlled. Due to this, better growth of fishes is achieved. Ultimately, he is also able to grow more number of fish and achieved better production of fish. This method of growing selected fish under controlled environmental conditions in confined water bodies so as to achieve maximum productivity is termed as culture fishery.
The culture fishery is also of two types viz.,
Fin fish fishery
Shell fish fishery.
The fishery concerned with fishes having fins is called fin fish fishery. The fishery concerned with fishes having shell is called shell fish fishery.
Molluscans, Crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and prawns constitute shell fish fishery.
The culture of fin fishes is also termed as pisci culture. The culture of any aquatic food organisms can be referred to as aquaculture.
Pakistan has substantial areas of inland waters as a result of its location as the drainage basin for the Himalayas. The region between 33 o N and 20 o N consists of a network of rivers, canals, reservoirs, lakes, waterlogged areas and village ponds, etc. with a total area of about 8.6 million ha. Of this total, some 30000 ha correspond to the area utilized for cold-water trout production and other commercially important sport fishes such as mahseer (Tor tor) and snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii). Also read Aquaculture in Pakistan.
The fish not only yields flesh but also vitamins like A and D. Due to less cholesterol content the fish flesh is used as food for heart.