Pathology

Pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in serum or urine. Although pregnancy is the…
Semen (or seminal fluid) is a fluid that is emitted from the male genital tract…
These tests are available only in specialized andrology laboratories. The tests are not standardized thus…
ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES The role of antisperm antibodies in causation of male infertility is controversial. The…
The most important test in semen analysis for infertility is microscopic examination of the semen.
Biochemical markers (Table 831.1) can be measured in semen to test the secretions of accessory…
Examination is carried out after liquefaction of semen that occurs usually within 20-30 minutes of…
This includes examination of material obtained from vagina, stains from clothing, skin, hair, or other…
1. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINARY SEDIMENT Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3 or…
The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below: Proteins Glucose…
Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”.
Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and…
Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and…
The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic…
1. HEAT AND ACETIC ACID TEST (BOILING TEST)   This test is based on the…
1. COPPER REDUCTION METHODS A. Benedict’s qualitative test: When urine is boiled in Benedict’s qualitative…
The parameters to be examined on physical examination of urine are listed below. Volume Color…
Page 3 of 4