Description: Forensic Pathology: Principles and Practice is an extensively illustrated reference book that contains more than 1800 color photographs accompanied by well-considered text that thoroughly explains representative topics, and also provides abundant, up-to-date references for further reading. This well-written volume uses a case-oriented format to address, explain and guide the reader through the varied topics encountered by forensic pathologists. It will benefit not only the experienced forensic pathologist, but also the hospital pathologist who occasionally performs medicolegal autopsies. Doctors in training and those law enforcement officials investigating the broad spectrum of sudden, unexpected and violent deaths that may fall within the jurisdiction of medicolegal death investigators will also find this an invaluable resource.
  • Large, colorful photographs which beautifully illustrate the concepts outlined in the text.
  • Sample descriptions of pathological lesions which serve to aid pathologists in reporting their findings to law enforcement agencies, attorneys, and others involved in investigations of sudden death.
  • Do and Don't' sections at the end of each chapter which provide guidance for handling the types of cases examined within preceding sections.

Additional Info

  • File Name Forensic Pathology Principles and Practice, 1st Edition - 2005
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2005
  • Author(s) David Dolinak, Evan Matshes, Emma O. Lew
  • ISBN-10 0122199510
  • ISBN-13 978-0122199516
  • Size 71 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Forensic Pathology for Police, Death Investigators, Attorneys, and Forensic Scientists is a forensic pathology book specifically written for professionals who interact with forensic pathologists. The book includes sections that address various general topics which are not normally present in the typical forensic pathology text, such as descriptions of medical, pathology and forensic pathology training, basic anatomy and physiology, an overview of other forensic science disciplines, and autopsy performance. Forensic Pathology for Police, Death Investigators, Attorneys, and Forensic Scientists also covers classic topics in forensic pathology, including death investigation, death certification, postmortem changes, and the entire range of case types, ranging from natural deaths to drug-related deaths to various types of violent death. The text is written in easy-to-understand language, and is complemented by hundreds of high-quality photographs. As an added bonus, a CD containing color versions of all of the photographs shown in the text, as well as hundreds of additional color photographs, is included.

Additional Info

  • File Name Forensic Pathology for Police Death Investigators Attorneys and Forensic Scientists 2010
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2010
  • Author(s) Joseph Prahlow
  • ASIN B01K0RBYA2
  • Publisher Humana Press (1847)
  • Size 10.2 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Worldwide, breast cancer is by far the most common cancer amongst women, with an incidence rate more than twice that of colorectal cancer and cervical cancer and about three times that of lung cancer. Whilst screening programmes have improved detection, this disease still places a very high burden on healthcare services worldwide. Over the last two decades, improved public awareness, the implementation of population screening by mammography, and the development of new technology for diagnosis have transformed the care of patients with breast cancer. In this volume, recognised experts discuss key current issues in the diagnosis and management of breast disease. The development and application of new diagnostic techniques is described as well as the use of sophisticated drugs for more effective treatment. Complex contentious topics including risk factors, borderline lesions, professional performance and quality assurance are thoroughly explored by an expert multidisciplinary team.

Additional Info

  • File Name Breast Cancer - Contemporary Issues in Cancer Imaging
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2010-04-12
  • Author(s) Michael J. Michell
  • ASIN B01FIZNYNG
  • Publisher Cambridge University Press (1850)
  • Size 8.97 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Cytopreparation: Principles and Practice by Gary W. Gill fills a long-standing need for an easy-to-use and authoritative manual on the fundamentals of cytopreparation up-to-and- including microscopy, screening, and data analysis. The text describes in phenomenological terms the most common materials and methods of specimen collection through mounting for gyn, non-gyn, and FNA specimens, as well as the underlying mechanistic bases. The author provides his expertise and information that will empower and enable readers to review and improve their laboratories’ cytopreparatory techniques as they apply to the vast majority of specimens. This unique volume provides facts that are not readily available anywhere. Cytopreparation: Principles & Practice is intended for everyone associated with, and involved in, making cytologic preparations that are useful for their intended purpose. It will serve as a valuable reference tool for educators in cytology and histology, cytotechnology and histotechnology students, cytotechnologists, cytopreparatory technicians, cytopathologists, anatomical/clinical pathologists, pathology residents and cytopathology fellows.

Additional Info

  • File Name Cytopreparation Principles Practice 2013
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) Gary W. Gill
  • ASIN B01K0SF1IW
  • Size 5.23 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: p53 has emerged as a key tumor suppressor and important target for novel cancer therapy. This book, written by world-leading p53 researchers including many of those who have shaped the field over the past 25 years, provides unique insights into the progress of the field and the prospects for better cancer diagnosis and therapy in the future.

Additional Info

  • File Name 25 Years of p53 Research - 2007
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) Pierre Hainaut and Klas G. Wiman
  • ASIN B01FELO9EM
  • Publisher Springer
  • Size 12.6 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Black's Medical Dictionary first appeared in 1906. That new century was to see health care in the United Kingdom evolve from a largely personal, paternalistic consultation between doctor and patient, based more on medical tradition than medical science, to a complex, science-based, team-oriented and managed service. The emergence of the informed patient was largely responsible for this change, and publications like this dictionary, the contents of which have during its forty-one editions reflected these changes in medicine, have served as a catalyst.

The forty-first edition of Black's Medical Dictionary provides over 5,000 definitions and descriptions of medical terms and concepts, along with over 100 diagrams and drawings including several pages of color illustrations, and is accompanied by appendixes on important subjects such as the National Health Service (including selected statistics), Health Economics, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Common Medical Tests, and an address list of support and professional organizations. Where relevant, entries contain appropriate cross-references to further information. All material has been checked and updated with new or substantially revised entries. This home compendium is invaluable for all who need an authoritative one-volume medical reference book.

Additional Info

  • File Name Black Medical Dictionary 41st Edition - 2005
  • Edition 41st
  • Year 2005
  • Size 0 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Diagnostic Pediatric Hematopathology is unique in providing an accurate and up-to-date guide to the diagnosis of benign and malignant hematologic disorders of childhood. The text discusses the development of the hematopoietic and lymphoid systems - and how this affects normal and abnormal findings in children at various ages. Also examined are the morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic characteristics of most pediatric-specific hematologic diseases. This is an excellent reference that ensures accurate diagnoses when evaluating peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes of children. The text is written by a team of experienced pediatric hematopathologists and clinical scientists drawn from major academic children's hospitals in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. It will be a valuable tool in the every day practice of pathologists, pediatric pathologists, and hematopathologists, and a ready educational resource for fellows, pathology residents, medical students, clinical scientists in the field, and pediatric hematologists/oncologists.

Additional Info

  • File Name Diagnostic Pediatric Hematopathology 2011
  • Edition 2011
  • Year 2011
  • ASIN B01FIWYLKO
  • Size 0 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Determining and understanding the molecular mechanisms of disease is one of the key goals of modern medical research. The studies of medical genetics, microbiology, immunology, structural biology, molecular cell biology, neuroscience and developmental biology have been brought to bear on the full range of human diseases. This comprehensive Encyclopedia supplies the reader with concise information on molecular pathophysiology of human disease.
Entries include both defined diseases (such as Parkinson's disease) and pathophysiological entities (such as tremor). The more than 1,200 entries are structured to allow rapid retrieval of information. For more detailed reading, each entry is followed by up to 5 references. The individual entries are written by leading experts in the respective area of research to ensure state-of-the-art descriptions of the mechanisms involved.

Additional Info

  • File Name Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease, 1st Edition - 2009
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2009
  • Author(s) Florian Lang
  • ISBN-10 3540671366
  • ISBN-13 978-3540671367
  • Size 32.8 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: The first part of the book focuses on indications and results of transplantation for acute leukemias, chronic myelogenous leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer, providing insight into the relative merits of transplant and nontransplant approaches to these disorders. Part II examines transplant-related complications including the pathophysiology and clinical consequences of acute and chronic GVHD, delayed immune reconstitution leading to infectious complications, and organ damage to the lung and liver.

Additional Info

  • File Name Stem Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies by Soiffer, 2004
  • Edition 8th
  • Year 2004
  • Author(s) Robert J. Soiffer
  • ASIN B01HC9NEBI
  • Size 32.8 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: One of the best-selling medical textbooks of all time, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease is the one book that nearly all medical students purchase, and is also widely used by physicians worldwide. A "who's who" of pathology experts delivers the most dependable, current, and complete coverage of today's essential pathology knowledge. At the same time, masterful editing and a practical organization make mastering every concept remarkably easy. Online access via Student Consult includes self-assessment and review questions, interactive case studies, downloadable images, videos, and a virtual microscope that lets you view slides at different magnifications. The result remains the ideal source for an optimal understanding of pathology.
  • Offers the most authoritative and comprehensive, yet readable coverage available in any pathology textbook, making it ideal for USMLE or specialty board preparation as well as for course work.
  • Includes access to the complete contents online via Student Consult, along with self-assessment and review questions, over 100 interactive clinical case studies, downloadable images, videos, and a virtual microscope that lets users view slides at different magnifications.
  • Delivers a state-of-the-art understanding of the pathologic basis of disease through completely updated coverage, including the latest cellular and molecular biology.
  • Demonstrates every concept visually with over 1,600 full-color photomicrographs and conceptual diagrams - many revised for even better quality.
  • Facilitates learning with an outstanding full-color, highly user-friendly design.
 

Additional Info

  • File Name Robbins and Cotran's Pathologic Basis of Disease, 8th Edition. 2009
  • Edition 8th
  • Year 2009
  • ISBN-10 1451107137
  • ISBN-13 978-1416031215
  • Size 62.3 MB
  • File Format .rar/.chm
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: This companion monograph to West's Respiratory Physiology covers normal respiratory function and focuses on the function of the diseased lung. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials offers a concise overview of the diseased states of the lung, emphasizing structure and function. The Eighth Edition is updated to include new information on asthma therapies, new radiographs and micrographs, extended sections on infections and cancer, more thorough explanations for review questions, and a new summary appendix of equations with sample calculations.
 
 
 
 
 

Additional Info

  • File Name Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th Edition. 2013
  • Edition 8th
  • Year 2013
  • Author(s) John B. West
  • ISBN-10 978-1451107135
  • ISBN-13 1451107137
  • Size 32.8 MB
  • Password bioscience.pk

Description: Based on Lever's Histopathology of the Skin, Second Edition, this full-color atlas presents an algorithmic pattern recognition approach to differential diagnosis of skin diseases. Whereas Lever's classifies diseases by pathogenesis, this atlas aids in differential diagnosis of unknown cases by classifying diseases morphologically, based on their location in the skin and the patterns and cell types seen through the microscope. Within each morphologic category, prototypic disorders are described and illustrated with full-color photomicrographs, and a list of differential diagnostic possibilities is presented. The atlas contains over 1,300 full-color illustrations.

Additional Info

  • File Name Atlas and Synopsis of Lever's Histopathology of the Skin 2nd Edition - 2007
  • Edition 2nd
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) David E. Elder, Rosalie Elenitsas, Bernett L. Johnson Jr. MD, Michael Ioffreda, Jeffrey Miller MD, O. Fred Miller III MD
  • Size 44 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
An acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody test is used to help diagnose myasthenia gravis (MG) and to distinguish it from other conditions that may cause similar symptoms, such as chronic muscle fatigue and weakness.
 
AchR antibodies hinder the action of acetylcholine, a chemical (neurotransmitter) that transmits messages between nerve cells. The antibodies do this in three major ways:
  • "Binding" antibodies attach to the acetylcholine receptors on nerve cells and may initiate an inflammatory reaction that destroys them.
  • "Blocking" antibodies may sit on the receptors, preventing acetylcholine from binding.
  • "Modulating" antibodies may cross-link the receptors, causing them to be taken up into the muscle cell and removed from the neuromuscular junction.
Three different types of tests are available to determine which of these may be the problem in a particular individual. However, the test that measures "binding" antibodies is most commonly used because it is generally rare for the other two tests to be positive without the "binding" test being positive as well. These other tests may be used when a doctor strongly suspects myasthenia gravis and the "binding" test is negative.
 
One or more of the AChR antibody tests may be ordered as part of a panel of tests that may also include a striated muscle antibody test to help establish a diagnosis. Depending upon results, an anti-MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) antibody test may also be ordered. The AChR antibody test may be ordered initially as a baseline test and then as indicated to evaluate MG disease activity and/or response to therapy.
 
People with MG often have an enlarged thymus gland and may have thymomas (typically benign tumors of the thymus). Located under the breastbone, the thymus is an active part of the immune system during childhood but normally becomes less active after puberty. If a thymoma is detected, such as during a chest computed tomography (CT) scan done for a different reason, then an AChR antibody test may sometimes be used to determine whether the person has developed these antibodies.
 
When is it ordered?
The AChR antibody test may be ordered when a person has symptoms that suggest MG, such as:
  • Drooping eyelid
  • Double vision
  • Decreased eye movement control
  • Difficulty swallowing, chewing, with choking, drooling and gagging
  • Slurred speech
  • Weak neck muscles
  • Trouble holding up head
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty walking and an altered gait
  • Specific muscle weakness but normal feelings/sensations
  • Muscle weakness that worsens with sustained effort and improves with rest
When a person has been diagnosed with MG, an AChR antibody test may be ordered occasionally to evaluate MG disease activity and/or response to therapy.
 
An AChR antibody test may sometimes be ordered when a thymoma is detected.
 
What does the test result mean?
AChR antibodies are not normally present in the blood. They are autoantibodies and their presence indicates an autoimmune response.
 
If a person has AChR antibodies and symptoms of MG, then it is likely that the person has this condition.
 
AChR antibodies may be seen with some thymomas, in people who are being treated with drugs such as penicillamine, with some small cell lung cancers, with autoimmune liver disease, and with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (a condition associated with interference with the release of acetylcholine from the nerve ending).
 
A negative test result does not rule out MG. Up to 50% of those with ocular MG (affecting only eye-related muscles) and about 10-15% of those with generalized MG will be negative for AChR antibodies.
 
In general, the greater the quantity of AChR antibody, the more likely a person is to have significant symptoms, but the test results cannot be used to evaluate the severity of symptoms in a specific person.
Bacterial genetics is the subfield of genetics devoted to the study of bacteria. Bacterial genetics are subtly different from eukaryotic genetics, however bacteria still serve as a good model for animal genetic studies. One of the major distinctions between bacterial and eukaryotic genetics stems from the bacteria's lack of membrane-bound organelles (this is true of all prokaryotes. While it is a fact that there are prokaryotic organelles, they are never bound by a lipid membrane, but by a shell of proteins), necessitating protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm.
 
Like other organisms, bacteria also breed true and maintain their characteristics from generation to generation, yet at same time, exhibit variations in particular properties in a small proportion of their progeny. Though heritability and variations in bacteria had been noticed from the early days of bacteriology, it was not realised then that bacteria too obey the laws of genetics. Even the existence of a bacterial nucleus was a subject of controversy. The differences in morphology and other properties were attributed by Nageli in 1877, to bacterial pleomorphism, which postulated the existence of a single, a few species of bacteria, which possessed a protein capacity for a variation. With the development and application of precise methods of pure culture, it became apparent that different types of bacteria retained constant form and function through successive generations. This led to the concept of monomorphism.
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but it intersects frequently with many of the life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems.
 
The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar. Mendel studied 'trait inheritance', patterns in the way traits were handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene.
 
Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still a primary principle of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes. Gene structure and function, variation, and distribution are studied within the context of the cell, the organism (e.g. dominance) and within the context of a population. Genetics has given rise to a number of sub-fields including epigenetics and population genetics. Organisms studied within the broad field span the domain of life, including bacteria, plants, animals, and humans.
 
Genetic processes work in combination with an organism's environment and experiences to influence development and behavior, often referred to as nature versus nurture. The intra- or extra-cellular environment of a cell or organism may switch gene transcription on or off. A classic example is two seeds of genetically identical corn, one placed in a temperate climate and one in an arid climate. While the average height of the two corn stalks may be genetically determined to be equal, the one in the arid climate only grows to half the height of the one in the temperate climate, due to lack of water and nutrients in its environment.
 
History
The observation that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. The modern science of genetics, seeking to understand this process, began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century.
 
Although the science of genetics began with the applied and theoretical work of Mendel, other theories of inheritance preceded his work. A popular theory during Mendel's time was the concept of blending inheritance: the idea that individuals inherit a smooth blend of traits from their parents. Mendel's work provided examples where traits were definitely not blended after hybridization, showing that traits are produced by combinations of distinct genes rather than a continuous blend. Blending of traits in the progeny is now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects. Another theory that had some support at that time was the inheritance of acquired characteristics: the belief that individuals inherit traits strengthened by their parents. This theory (commonly associated with Jean-Baptiste Lamarck) is now known to be wrong—the experiences of individuals do not affect the genes they pass to their children, although evidence in the field of epigenetics has revived some aspects of Lamarck's theory. Other theories included the pangenesis of Charles Darwin (which had both acquired and inherited aspects) and Francis Galton's reformulation of pangenesis as both particulate and inherited.
A quality control (QC) associate carries out testing and analysis to ensure that biomedical research studies and biomedical products meet specifications and regulatory guidelines. QC associates work in quality control laboratories and in biomanufacturing environments, using complex instrumentation and laboratory equipment to conduct tests and analyses that are used in product quality regulations or scientific research studies. Because the products being developed or manufactured directly impact people’s lives, strict Food and Drug Administration regulations must be followed and documented at every step. In the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products, companies are required to follow SOPs (standard operating procedures) and every step of every process must have a traceable, written record. QC associates are responsible for this documentation. The QC associate performs analytical tests, gathers and assesses data from those tests and writes documentation and reports.

A social and emotional intervention developed to help children recover from the trauma of natural disasters is being altered to help young Syrian refugees heal their psychological wounds. Journey of Hope, a school-based psychosocial intervention co-developed by University of Illinois social work professor Tara M.