Description: Determining and understanding the molecular mechanisms of disease is one of the key goals of modern medical research. The studies of medical genetics, microbiology, immunology, structural biology, molecular cell biology, neuroscience and developmental biology have been brought to bear on the full range of human diseases. This comprehensive Encyclopedia supplies the reader with concise information on molecular pathophysiology of human disease.
Entries include both defined diseases (such as Parkinson's disease) and pathophysiological entities (such as tremor). The more than 1,200 entries are structured to allow rapid retrieval of information. For more detailed reading, each entry is followed by up to 5 references. The individual entries are written by leading experts in the respective area of research to ensure state-of-the-art descriptions of the mechanisms involved.

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  • File Name Encyclopedia of Molecular Mechanisms of Disease, 1st Edition - 2009
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2009
  • Author(s) Florian Lang
  • ISBN-10 3540671366
  • ISBN-13 978-3540671367
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Description: The first part of the book focuses on indications and results of transplantation for acute leukemias, chronic myelogenous leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer, providing insight into the relative merits of transplant and nontransplant approaches to these disorders. Part II examines transplant-related complications including the pathophysiology and clinical consequences of acute and chronic GVHD, delayed immune reconstitution leading to infectious complications, and organ damage to the lung and liver.

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  • File Name Stem Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies by Soiffer, 2004
  • Edition 8th
  • Year 2004
  • Author(s) Robert J. Soiffer
  • ASIN B01HC9NEBI
  • Size 32.8 MB
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Description: One of the best-selling medical textbooks of all time, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease is the one book that nearly all medical students purchase, and is also widely used by physicians worldwide. A "who's who" of pathology experts delivers the most dependable, current, and complete coverage of today's essential pathology knowledge. At the same time, masterful editing and a practical organization make mastering every concept remarkably easy. Online access via Student Consult includes self-assessment and review questions, interactive case studies, downloadable images, videos, and a virtual microscope that lets you view slides at different magnifications. The result remains the ideal source for an optimal understanding of pathology.
  • Offers the most authoritative and comprehensive, yet readable coverage available in any pathology textbook, making it ideal for USMLE or specialty board preparation as well as for course work.
  • Includes access to the complete contents online via Student Consult, along with self-assessment and review questions, over 100 interactive clinical case studies, downloadable images, videos, and a virtual microscope that lets users view slides at different magnifications.
  • Delivers a state-of-the-art understanding of the pathologic basis of disease through completely updated coverage, including the latest cellular and molecular biology.
  • Demonstrates every concept visually with over 1,600 full-color photomicrographs and conceptual diagrams - many revised for even better quality.
  • Facilitates learning with an outstanding full-color, highly user-friendly design.
 

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  • File Name Robbins and Cotran's Pathologic Basis of Disease, 8th Edition. 2009
  • Edition 8th
  • Year 2009
  • ISBN-10 1451107137
  • ISBN-13 978-1416031215
  • Size 62.3 MB
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Description: This companion monograph to West's Respiratory Physiology covers normal respiratory function and focuses on the function of the diseased lung. Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials offers a concise overview of the diseased states of the lung, emphasizing structure and function. The Eighth Edition is updated to include new information on asthma therapies, new radiographs and micrographs, extended sections on infections and cancer, more thorough explanations for review questions, and a new summary appendix of equations with sample calculations.
 
 
 
 
 

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  • File Name Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials, 8th Edition. 2013
  • Edition 8th
  • Year 2013
  • Author(s) John B. West
  • ISBN-10 978-1451107135
  • ISBN-13 1451107137
  • Size 32.8 MB
  • Password bioscience.pk

Description: Based on Lever's Histopathology of the Skin, Second Edition, this full-color atlas presents an algorithmic pattern recognition approach to differential diagnosis of skin diseases. Whereas Lever's classifies diseases by pathogenesis, this atlas aids in differential diagnosis of unknown cases by classifying diseases morphologically, based on their location in the skin and the patterns and cell types seen through the microscope. Within each morphologic category, prototypic disorders are described and illustrated with full-color photomicrographs, and a list of differential diagnostic possibilities is presented. The atlas contains over 1,300 full-color illustrations.

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  • File Name Atlas and Synopsis of Lever's Histopathology of the Skin 2nd Edition - 2007
  • Edition 2nd
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) David E. Elder, Rosalie Elenitsas, Bernett L. Johnson Jr. MD, Michael Ioffreda, Jeffrey Miller MD, O. Fred Miller III MD
  • Size 44 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
An acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody test is used to help diagnose myasthenia gravis (MG) and to distinguish it from other conditions that may cause similar symptoms, such as chronic muscle fatigue and weakness.
 
AchR antibodies hinder the action of acetylcholine, a chemical (neurotransmitter) that transmits messages between nerve cells. The antibodies do this in three major ways:
  • "Binding" antibodies attach to the acetylcholine receptors on nerve cells and may initiate an inflammatory reaction that destroys them.
  • "Blocking" antibodies may sit on the receptors, preventing acetylcholine from binding.
  • "Modulating" antibodies may cross-link the receptors, causing them to be taken up into the muscle cell and removed from the neuromuscular junction.
Three different types of tests are available to determine which of these may be the problem in a particular individual. However, the test that measures "binding" antibodies is most commonly used because it is generally rare for the other two tests to be positive without the "binding" test being positive as well. These other tests may be used when a doctor strongly suspects myasthenia gravis and the "binding" test is negative.
 
One or more of the AChR antibody tests may be ordered as part of a panel of tests that may also include a striated muscle antibody test to help establish a diagnosis. Depending upon results, an anti-MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) antibody test may also be ordered. The AChR antibody test may be ordered initially as a baseline test and then as indicated to evaluate MG disease activity and/or response to therapy.
 
People with MG often have an enlarged thymus gland and may have thymomas (typically benign tumors of the thymus). Located under the breastbone, the thymus is an active part of the immune system during childhood but normally becomes less active after puberty. If a thymoma is detected, such as during a chest computed tomography (CT) scan done for a different reason, then an AChR antibody test may sometimes be used to determine whether the person has developed these antibodies.
 
When is it ordered?
The AChR antibody test may be ordered when a person has symptoms that suggest MG, such as:
  • Drooping eyelid
  • Double vision
  • Decreased eye movement control
  • Difficulty swallowing, chewing, with choking, drooling and gagging
  • Slurred speech
  • Weak neck muscles
  • Trouble holding up head
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty walking and an altered gait
  • Specific muscle weakness but normal feelings/sensations
  • Muscle weakness that worsens with sustained effort and improves with rest
When a person has been diagnosed with MG, an AChR antibody test may be ordered occasionally to evaluate MG disease activity and/or response to therapy.
 
An AChR antibody test may sometimes be ordered when a thymoma is detected.
 
What does the test result mean?
AChR antibodies are not normally present in the blood. They are autoantibodies and their presence indicates an autoimmune response.
 
If a person has AChR antibodies and symptoms of MG, then it is likely that the person has this condition.
 
AChR antibodies may be seen with some thymomas, in people who are being treated with drugs such as penicillamine, with some small cell lung cancers, with autoimmune liver disease, and with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (a condition associated with interference with the release of acetylcholine from the nerve ending).
 
A negative test result does not rule out MG. Up to 50% of those with ocular MG (affecting only eye-related muscles) and about 10-15% of those with generalized MG will be negative for AChR antibodies.
 
In general, the greater the quantity of AChR antibody, the more likely a person is to have significant symptoms, but the test results cannot be used to evaluate the severity of symptoms in a specific person.
Bacterial genetics is the subfield of genetics devoted to the study of bacteria. Bacterial genetics are subtly different from eukaryotic genetics, however bacteria still serve as a good model for animal genetic studies. One of the major distinctions between bacterial and eukaryotic genetics stems from the bacteria's lack of membrane-bound organelles (this is true of all prokaryotes. While it is a fact that there are prokaryotic organelles, they are never bound by a lipid membrane, but by a shell of proteins), necessitating protein synthesis occur in the cytoplasm.
 
Like other organisms, bacteria also breed true and maintain their characteristics from generation to generation, yet at same time, exhibit variations in particular properties in a small proportion of their progeny. Though heritability and variations in bacteria had been noticed from the early days of bacteriology, it was not realised then that bacteria too obey the laws of genetics. Even the existence of a bacterial nucleus was a subject of controversy. The differences in morphology and other properties were attributed by Nageli in 1877, to bacterial pleomorphism, which postulated the existence of a single, a few species of bacteria, which possessed a protein capacity for a variation. With the development and application of precise methods of pure culture, it became apparent that different types of bacteria retained constant form and function through successive generations. This led to the concept of monomorphism.
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but it intersects frequently with many of the life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems.
 
The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar. Mendel studied 'trait inheritance', patterns in the way traits were handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene.
 
Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still a primary principle of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes. Gene structure and function, variation, and distribution are studied within the context of the cell, the organism (e.g. dominance) and within the context of a population. Genetics has given rise to a number of sub-fields including epigenetics and population genetics. Organisms studied within the broad field span the domain of life, including bacteria, plants, animals, and humans.
 
Genetic processes work in combination with an organism's environment and experiences to influence development and behavior, often referred to as nature versus nurture. The intra- or extra-cellular environment of a cell or organism may switch gene transcription on or off. A classic example is two seeds of genetically identical corn, one placed in a temperate climate and one in an arid climate. While the average height of the two corn stalks may be genetically determined to be equal, the one in the arid climate only grows to half the height of the one in the temperate climate, due to lack of water and nutrients in its environment.
 
History
The observation that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. The modern science of genetics, seeking to understand this process, began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century.
 
Although the science of genetics began with the applied and theoretical work of Mendel, other theories of inheritance preceded his work. A popular theory during Mendel's time was the concept of blending inheritance: the idea that individuals inherit a smooth blend of traits from their parents. Mendel's work provided examples where traits were definitely not blended after hybridization, showing that traits are produced by combinations of distinct genes rather than a continuous blend. Blending of traits in the progeny is now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects. Another theory that had some support at that time was the inheritance of acquired characteristics: the belief that individuals inherit traits strengthened by their parents. This theory (commonly associated with Jean-Baptiste Lamarck) is now known to be wrong—the experiences of individuals do not affect the genes they pass to their children, although evidence in the field of epigenetics has revived some aspects of Lamarck's theory. Other theories included the pangenesis of Charles Darwin (which had both acquired and inherited aspects) and Francis Galton's reformulation of pangenesis as both particulate and inherited.
A quality control (QC) associate carries out testing and analysis to ensure that biomedical research studies and biomedical products meet specifications and regulatory guidelines. QC associates work in quality control laboratories and in biomanufacturing environments, using complex instrumentation and laboratory equipment to conduct tests and analyses that are used in product quality regulations or scientific research studies. Because the products being developed or manufactured directly impact people’s lives, strict Food and Drug Administration regulations must be followed and documented at every step. In the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products, companies are required to follow SOPs (standard operating procedures) and every step of every process must have a traceable, written record. QC associates are responsible for this documentation. The QC associate performs analytical tests, gathers and assesses data from those tests and writes documentation and reports.

A social and emotional intervention developed to help children recover from the trauma of natural disasters is being altered to help young Syrian refugees heal their psychological wounds. Journey of Hope, a school-based psychosocial intervention co-developed by University of Illinois social work professor Tara M.

Yesterday's shooting in San Bernardino, CA marked the 355th mass shooting in the United States in less than as galore years in 2015. As inside information emerges regarding the events of yesterday, it is clear that these types of crimes are morphing and not diminishing.

Often called a “Digital Age Leonardo da Vinci”, Alexander Tsiaras is a digital innovator, technologist and artist. You might know him from his work that showcases beautiful digital images of the human body, made using cutting edge imaging software along with artsy tweaks. Guided by a passion for the human form and insides, Tsiaras founded the TheVisualMD, an extensive online library that documents human anatomy and illness, as well as Anatomical Travelogue, a company specialized in creating digital works of art that faithfully show the workings of the human body. He also authored a number of well received books like From Conception to Birth: A Life Unfolds, The Architecture and Design of Man and Woman: The Marvel of the Human Body, Revealed, The InVision Guide to a Healthy Heart and The InVision Guide to Sexual Health.

Read more: Breathtaking digital images probe human anatomy like never before
Lizard, bird and rabbit, all these three animals are included in group Amniota (Amniote). They excrete the unwanted nitrogenous waste products from their body, and the process is called excretion. If the process of excretion does not take place properly in the body, they become poisonous. In Vertebrates, main excretory organs are called as kidneys. Skin, gills, lungs, liver and intestine are also acts as accessory excretory organs.
 
Kidneys are located on the dorsal side of the coelom and they are made up with numerous uriniferous tubules.
 
Typical, uriniferous tubule is consist of three parts.
 
  1. Ciliated peritoneal funnel
  2. Malpighian body
  3. Ciliated convoluted tube
 
EXCRETORY SYSTEM - GARDEN LIZARD EXCRETORY SYSTEM - PIGEON EXCRETORY SYSTEM - RABBIT
1. Paired kidneys are dark red and irregular in shape. These are flattened organs. 1. Kidneys are dark red and somewhat rectangular and flattened organs. 1. Kidneys are dark red and bean-shaped organs.
2. Kidneys are located in the posterior region of the abdominal cavity and attached to the dorsal wall by a fold of peritoneum. 2. Kidneys are situated in the anterior part of the abdomen. 2. Kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdominal cavity.
3. Right and left kidneys are opposite to each other. 3. Same as in calotes. 3. The two kidneys are distinct. The right kidney lies much ahead than the left kidney.
4. They are attached to the dorsal muscles. 4. They are fitted in the hollows of the pelvic girdle. 4. Same as in calotes.
5. They are very near to the median line kidneys are Metanephros type. 5. They are a little away from the median line. Kidneys are Meta nephros type. 5. They are well away from the median line. Kidneys are meta ne phros type.
6. Each kidney has two lobes Anterior lobe is broad and posterior lobe is broad Hilus is absent. 6. Each kidney has three lobes They are anterior, median and posterior lobes. Hilus is absent. 6. Each kidney is a single-lobed structure. Inner side of the kidney has a concave depression is known as the 'hilus'.
7. The two kidneys are united posteriorly forming a V-shaped structure. 7. The two kidneys are separate and do not fuse with each other. 7. The two kidneys are distinct.
8. The two ureters are narrow, thin-walled ducts extending behind from the kidneys to the cloaca, where these open into the urodaeum. 8. Same as in Calotes. 8. The ureters open into the urinary bladder. Ureters arise from the hilus of each kidney.
9. There is no pelvis. 9. There is no pelvis. 9. Each ureter is expanded in its kidney into a funnel like pelvis.
10. In males the ureters join at its posterior end with its corresponding vas deferens and both open by a common urino-genital aperture. 10. The ureters do not join with the vas deferens and both open separately into the cloaca. 10. Ureters open separately into the urinary bladder.
11. A thin walled urinary bladder opens on the ventral side of cloaca. 11. Urinary bladder is absent. 11. Urinary bladder is a large, median, pear, shaped, thin walled transparent sac.
12. Urinary bladder communicates with urodaeum thrumph its ventral wall. 12. __ 12. Urinary bladder opens into the urethra or unnogenital canal.
13. Calotes is uricotelic animal Urine consists n.ainly of uric acid. 13. Urine consists mainly of uric acid cotelic animal. 13. Urine consists mainly of urea - ureotelic animal.
14. Urine is excreted in a semi solid state. 14. Urine is excreted in a semisolid state (Bird droppinos). 14. Urine is passed out in a fluid state.
Kidneys are the major excretory organs in all vertebrates. Some other organs such as lungs, gills, liver, intestine and skin also remove certain waste materials besides their normal functions. These are also known as the accessory excretory organs. Both shark and frog are anamniotic animals.
 
The kidneys lie dorsal to the coelom and are composed of large number of renal or uriniferous tubules. A uriniferous tubule typically con­sists of three regions - a ciliated peritoneal funnel, a malpighian body and a ciliated convoluted tube. The malpighian body is a two layered cup, the 'Bowman's capsule' containing a mass of capillaries the 'glomerulus'. The convoluted tube opens into a Longitudinal duct which extends backwards and opens into the cloaca. The excretory organs remove the nitrogenous waste products formed during the metabolic activities from time to time. If these products are not removed from the body, they are changed to toxic substances.
 
EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF FISH EXCRETORY SYSTEM OF FROG
1. Paired kidneys are very long and ribbon like. 1. Paired kidneys are short and roughly oval in shape.
2. Each kidney is differentiated into a small non-renal part (genital part) and a long posterior renal part. The two parts exhibit morphological difference. 2. Each kidney possesses genital as well as renal region. But these are not morphologically differentiat­ed.
3. The kidneys are uriniferous 'Opisthonephros' but functional Mesonephros. 3. The kidneys are mesonephros.
4. Some uriniferous tubules retain peritoneal funnel. 4. The peritoneal funnels are absent.
5. The uriniferous tubules have a specialised urea - absorbing seg­ment. 5. The urea-absorbing segment is absent.
6. Uriniferous tubules lead into special tubes - the urinary ducts (ureters). These are distinct from wolffian ducts. 6. Uriniferous tubules lead into the wolffian ducts.
7. Ureters run back ward over the ventral surface of the kidneys. 7. Wolffian ducts leave outer border of kidneys and run backward.
8. Ureters are independent ducts to carry urine from the kidneys to the Urinogenital sinus'. 8. The ureters serve for the passage of genital elements as well as urine. So they are known as urino-genital ducts.Urino genital sinus is absent.
9. The urinary bladder is absent. 9. A large bilobed urinary bladder is present. It opens into the cloaca opposite the openings of the ureters.
10. The urine is hypotonic to blood. 10. The urine is hypertonic to blood.
11. Scoliodon is an ureotelic animal. The endproduct of nitrogen metabolism is urea. A large Quantity of urea is retained in the body as an adaptation to marine life.Excess of urea is excreted chiefly through its gills. 11. Frog is also ureotelic animal. It excretes urine from the cloaca in the form of urea.
Calotes is a cold blooded (poikilothermic) and terrestrial garden lizard. Pigeon is a ward blooded bird adapted for aerial mode of life. Rabbit is warm blooded and a herbivorous mammal which is also known as Oryctolagus. The circulation of blood in vertebrates is of closed type(circulation occurs is blood vessels. The blood vessels which collect blood from different parts of the body are called as veins. The walls of veins are thick and possess valves.Thier lumen is wide. They collect deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body and carry to the heart. The veins are formed by means of capillaries in the respective tissues or organs. The deoxygenated blood is received by the sinus venosus or the right auricle. The portal veins are having capillaries at their both ends. The pulmonary veins possess oxygenated blood.
 
VENOUS SYSTEM OF CALOTES (GARDEN LIZARD) VENOUS SYSTEM OF COLUMBA (PIGEON) VENOUS SYSTEM OF ORYCTOLAGUS (RABBIT)
1. The venous system consists of common pulmonary vein, two precaval and one post caval veins. These collect blood from the various parts of the body. 1. The venous system con­sists of three large veins-teeo precavak and one post caval along with four large pulmonary veins. 1. The venous system con­sists of four distinct divisions. i) System of venae carae ii) Hepatic portal system iii) Pulmonary system iv) Coronary system
2. The two precaval veins collect blood from the anterior part of the body. Each precaval is formed by the union of the internal and external jugular veins from head and the sub clavian vein from the arm. Transverse jugular vein is absent. Azygous vein is also absent. 2. The two precaval veins collect blood from the anterior part of the body. Each precaval vein is formed by the union of Jugular (head), brachial (arm) and pectoral (Pectoral muscfes) veins. Transverse jugular vessel is present in between the jugular veins. Azygous vein is absent. 2. The two precaval veins collect blood from the anterior part of the body. Each precaval vein is formed by the union of the external jugular vein (head) and subclavian vein (fore limb). The right precaval vein receives the azygous (unpaired) and intercostal veins (intercostal muscles and dorsal wall of theory). Left azygous vein is absent.
3. The post canal vein joins the posterior angle of the sinus venous. It forms by the union right and left efferent renal veins and brings blood from the posterior side. 3. The post caval vein is formed by the union of two large itac veins a tittle behind the liver. 3. The post caval vein is a large median vein. It stands at the cauda region (icaudal vein) and runs forward and receives blood in its course. The veins which join the posl caval vein are pairec ilio himbars, iliacs gonadial renal, anc hepatic.
4. The renal portal system collects blood from the posterior side of the body. Caudal vein bifurcates into two pelvic veins which . unite in front and form into the median anterior abdominal vein enters into the liver. Each pelvic vein joined by femoral, sciatic veins of that side. From the pelvic arise the renal portal veins which branch into capillaries in the substance of the kidneys coccygeo-mesenteric vein is absent. 4. Renal portal system is not well developed in pigeon caudal vein bifurcates into right and left renal portal veins (Hypo gastric veins) each of which enters the kidney. The hypogastric vein receives the Internal iliac vein abng with femoral & sciatic veins. At the bifurcation of the caudal vein into the two renal portal veins arise a median 'coccygeome-senteric vein'. It is characteristic of birds. The coccygeo- mesenteric vein joins the hepatic portal vein. 4. Renal portal system is completely absent in Rabbit.
5. The Hepatic portal vein collects blood from the alimentary canal and enters the liver and breaks upto capillaries. 5. The Hepatic portal vein collects bbod from the alimentary canal and emptied into the liver. From the Ever the blood is carried by the post caval vein through hepatic veins. 5. Same as in pigeon.
6. Epi gastric vein is absent. 6. Epi gastric vein returns the blood from the mesenteries and joins the hepatic veins. This vein corresponds to the abdominal vein of the frog. 6. Epi gastric vein is absent.
7. The right and left pulmonary veins bring pure blood from the right and left lungs and united into a common branch. Common pulmonary vein opens into the left auricle. 7. Four large pulmonary veins return blood from the posterior part of the left auricle. 7. A pair of pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from the lungs They unite by a common arch and open into the dorsal wall of the left auricle.
8. The right auricle receives deoxygenated blood through sinus venosus and left auricle possess oxygenated blood. In the partially divided ventricle the blood mixes to some extent. 8. The right side of the heart (right auricle & ventricle) receives de-oxygenated blood and left side folded with (left auricle & ventricle) oxygenated blood. 8. Same as in pigeon. Coronary veins collect deoxygenated blood from the wall of the heart. The coronary sinus opens into the right auricle through an aperture guarded by the Valve of The besius'. The opening is called as the 'formina of the The besius'.
Scoliodon commonly called as shark fish is a poikilothermic (cold blooded) animal. It is cartilaginous fish. Rana (frog) is also poikilothermic and amphibious animal. The circulation of blood in vertebrates is of closed type. The blood vessels which collect blood from various parts of the body are known as veins. The walls of the veins are thin and possess valves. Their lumen is wide. They collect deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body and carry to the heart. The veins are formed by means of capillaries in the respective tissues or organs. The deoxygenated blood first enter into the sinus venosus which is the part of the heart. The portal veins are having capillaries at their both ends. The pulmonary veins possess oxygenated blood.
 
 
FISH (SHARK) - VENOUS SYSTEM FROG (RANA) - VENOUS SYSTEM
1. The venous system comprises a system of large thin walled sinuses which collect blood from the different body organs 1. The venous system comprises of thin walled tubular veins.
2. It consists of the following systems i) Anterior cardinal system ii) Posterior cardinal system iii) Hepatic porta! system iv) Ventral veins vi) Cutanecious system 2. It is divided into i) Anterior system of veins ii) Posterior system of veins iii) Portal systems.
3. The anterior cardinal system and the interior jugular sinuses collect blood from the head region through a number of sinuses. 3. The blood from the head region is collected by a pair of precoval veins. Each precaval vein is formed by External jugular, innominate and subclavian veins.
4. The blood from gills is collected by five pairs of dorsal nutrient sinuses and five pairs of ventral nutrient sinuses. 4.The blood from the lungs is collected by a pair of pulmonary veins.
5. The nutrient sinuses carry deoxygenated blood. 5. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood.
6. The nutrient sinuses empty into anterior cardinal and interior jugular sinuses which inturn open into the ductus cuvieri. Thus the blood finally carried to the sinus venosus. 6. The pulmonary veins open into the left auricle.
7. From the posterior part of the body the blood is collected by i) a pair of posterior cardinal sinuses ii) a pair of lateral abdominal veins iii) a pair of brachial veins. 7. The blood from the posterior part of the body is collected by i) renal portal system and ii) Post caval vein.
8. The renal portal system includes the caudal vein and the renal postal veins & Iliac veins. The blood from the pelvic fins is not carried to the kidneys. 8. The renal portal system consists of veins hind limbs i.e. femoral, sciatic and renal portal veins. The caudal vein is absent.
9. It is absent. 9. A part of the blood from the hind-body is transported to the liyer by an anterior abdominal vein.
10. The blood from the kidneys is collected by renal veins which open into posterior cardinals, opening into the cuvierian sinus. 10. The blood from kidneys is collected by four pairs of renal veins which open into the post caval vein.
11. The brachial veins join the lateral abdominals to form sub clavian veins which open into the ductus cuvieri. 11. The brachial veins open into the precaval veins particularly into the subclavian veins.
12. Three pairs cutaneous veins collect blood from the muscles of skin and open into the cardinal sinuses, lateral abdominals and brachial veins. 12. The cutaneous veins are only one pair which join with muscular & brachial and finally open into the subclavian veins.
13. The venus blood does not enter the sinus venosus directly. But it is collected first by the cuvierian sinus present transversely. 13. The blood collected by the two precavals and one post caval veins directly enters into the sinus venosus.
14. The blood from the parts of the alimentary canal is collected by the Hepatic portal vein and empties into the liver and from there it is transported by Hepatic sinuses into the sinus venosus. 14. The Hepatic portal vein collects blood from the different parts of the alimentary canal and empties into the liver. From the blood is transported into the sinus venosus through the hepatic veins and post caval vein.
Calotes is  called as garden lizard. It is a poikilothermic terrestrial reptile. Columba is commonly called as pigeon, being a bird it is  adapted for aerial mode of life. Oryctolagus (rabbit) is an herbivorous mammal. The blood circulation in these vertebrates is of closed type. The blood vessels which carry blood from the heart to the various parts of the body are known as arteries The walls of the arteries are thick and do not possess valves. The pure blood flows in the arteries. However the arteries which carry blood from the heart to the respiratory organs possess deoxygenated blood. The blood has high pressure in the arteries. Arteries ends by means of blood capillaries in the tissues. The different arteries associated in the circulation of blood form a system which is called as Arterial System.
 
In the above three vertebrates, the arteries arise differently but carry blood from the heart to the various parts of the body.
 
 
Calotes (Garden Lizard) Columba (Pigeon) Oryctolagus (Rabbit)
1. Arterial system consists of a pair of systemic arches and a pulmonary arch. 1. Arterial system consists of two arches-Right sys­temic arch and pulmonary arch. The right systemic arch is called Right Aortic arch. 1. Aiterial system con­sists of two arches, left systemic arch and pulmonary arch. The left systemic arch is known as Left aortic arch
2. The systemic arches and the pulmonary arch arise from the dorsal and ventral parts of the single ventricle. All the three arches are connected by connective tissue. 2. Right aortic arch arises from the left ventricle and pulmonary arch arises from the right ventricle. 2. Left aortic arch airses from the left ventricle and the pulmonary arch arises from the right ventricle.
3. The carotid branch of each side is connected with systemic arch by a vessel, 'Ductus caroticus'. 3. Ductus caroticus is absent. 3. Same is absent.
4. The subclavian arteries arise from the right systemic arch. 4.The right & left carotid and sub clavian arteries originate from the respective innominate arteries, ises. 4. The right carotid and sub clavian arteries arise from the innominate artery. But the left carotid and sub calvian arteries originate directly from the right aortic arch
5. Inter cestal arteries are present. 5. Same are present. 5. Same are present.
6. It is absent. 6. Pectoral artery supplies blood to the muscles of the wings. 6. It is absent.
7. Coeliac artery and anterior mesenteric artery arise separately from the dorsal from the dorsal aorta. 7. Same in pigeon. 7. Same in rabbit.
8. It is absent. 8. It is absent. 8. Phronic artery supplies blood to the muscles of the Diaphragm.
9. A pair of gonadial arteries are present. 9. From the anterior renal arteries the gonadial arteries are formed. 9. Paired Gonadial arteries arise directly from the dorsal arch.
10. Unpaired posterior mesenteric artery is present. 10. Same is present in pigeon. 10. Same is present in rabbit.
11. Three pairs of renal arteries arise from the dorsal aorta. 11. The anterior renal arteries develop from the dorsal aorta. But middle & posterior renal arteries arise from the sciatic artery of each side. 11. A pair of renal arteries arise from the dorsal aorta.
12. Common Iliac ar­teries are formed from the dorsal aor­ta. 12. The internal iliac arteries are formed from the dorsal aorta. 12. Iliolumbar arteries arise from the dorsal aorta.
13. The caudal artery is the terminal portion of the dorsal aorta to the tail. 13. The caudal artery the terminal portion of the dorsal aorta to the tail. 13. The caudal artery is the continuation of the dorsal aorta to the tail.
14. The pulmonary arteries carry blood from right part of the single ventricle to theright and left lungs. 14. Each pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the respective lung for purification. 14. The pulmonary artery which arises from the right ventricle divides into two branches and carry deoxygenated blood to the respective lungs.
15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart. 15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart of bird. 15. Coronary arteries supply blood to the walls of the heart.