Description: This resource is designed for students and workers in the health care sciences studying pathology. It is not a comprehensive guide to disease. As such the information may not be sufficient to address specific patient problems and these should be handled by health care providers familiar with the specific clinical details relevant to the individual.

Additional Info

  • File Name General Pathology Notes
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2013
  • Author(s) Clive R. Taylor
  • ISBN-10 0838551645
  • ISBN-13 978-0838551646
  • Size 169 KB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Ever since the discovery of blood types early in the last century, transfusion medicine has evolved at a breakneck pace. This second edition of Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine is exactly what you need to keep up. It combines scientific foundations with today's most practical approaches to the specialty. From blood collection and storage to testing and transfusing blood components, and finally cellular engineering, you'll find coverage here that's second to none. New advances in molecular genetics and the scientific mechanisms underlying the field are also covered, with an emphasis on the clinical implications for treatment. Whether you're new to the field or an old pro, this book belongs in your reference library.

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  • File Name Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine, 2nd Edition - 2007
  • Edition 2nd
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) Christopher D. Hillyer, Leslie E. Silberstein, Paul M. Ness, Kenneth C. Anderson
  • ISBN-13 978-0443069819
  • Size 22.8 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Guides users through 20 chapters of histology, including basic histological tissues and the organ systems. It includes 1400 light microscope and electron images arranged from lowest to highest magnification. Each chapter has 15-20 image-based questions and answers with explanations.

Additional Info

  • File Name Histology Image Review, 1st Edition - 2000
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2000
  • Author(s) Frank J. Wilson, Matthew G. Kestenbaum, Jean A. Gibney, Shannon Matta
  • Size 134 MB
  • File Format .rar/.chm
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: This is a modern Textbook in Pathology. The material is presented in a systematic manner in the best tradition of textbook writings. This book will be most appreciated by students who are methodical and do not take shortcuts in their effort to acquire encyclopedic knowledge of pathology. The structure of the text also allows focusing on the most important aspects of each topic discussed. Each chapter is subdivided into smaller entities, which are further divided into paragraphs, ideally suited for easy reading. Color coded headings and the added emphasis in form of words printed in bold or capital letters are additional attractions that facilitate learning. Unique to this Textbook is the numerous hand-drawn color illustrations, including many renditions of histopathologic slides. These drawings are simple, but to the point and well annotated. Students will most likely understand them much easier than the relatively impersonal original microphotographs of the same histopathologic lesions. Flow-charts are most efficiently used to explicate the pathogenesis of various lesions or the pathophysiology of disease processes. Tables are used for classifications and comparative listings of closely related diseases and their pathologic features. In essence, the revised edition is a comprehensive text of pathology meant primarily for students of pathology; however, the practicing clinicians and students of other branches of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, alternate system of medicine, and paramedical courses may also find it useful.

Additional Info

  • File Name Harsh Mohan Textbook of Pathology, 6th Edition
  • Edition 6th
  • Year 2010
  • Author(s) Harsh Mohan
  • ISBN-10 8180613682
  • ISBN-13 9788180613685
  • Size 59 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description:  Diagnose tumors with confidence with Diagnostic Histopathology of Tumors, 4th Edition. Dr. Christopher Fletcher's renowned reference provides the advanced, expert guidance you need to evaluate and interpret even the most challenging histopathology specimens more quickly and accurately. Diagnose efficiently and effectively using diagnostic flow charts, correlations of gross appearances to microscopic findings, and differential diagnosis tables for better recognition and evaluation of similar-looking entities. Employ immunohistochemistry, molecular and genetic diagnostic tests, and other modern techniques as well as the best morphologic diagnostic methods to effectively identify each tumor or tumor-like entity. Utilize new, clinically important molecular genetic data and updated classification schemes to help guide treatment and targeted therapy. Apply the latest techniques and diagnostic criteria with completely rewritten chapters on Small and Large Intestines, Heart, Larynx and Trachea, Ear, and Peritoneum. Find critical information quickly thanks to more tables and bulleted lists throughout. Access the entire text and illustrations online, fully searchable, at www.expertconsult.com.

Additional Info

  • File Name Diagnostic Histopathology of Tumors by Fletcher, 4th Ed. 2013
  • Edition 4th
  • Year 2013
  • Author(s) Christopher D. M. Fletcher
  • ISBN-10 1437715346
  • ISBN-13 978-1437715347
  • Size 1.35 GB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: This volume features multiple choice questions designed to help students acquire the factual knowledge necessary for good medical practice. The questions have been arranged to correspond with the chapters of "Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine" (18th edition). The questions are worded to avoid ambiguity and are not designed to trick the unwary. There are annotated answers.

Additional Info

  • File Name 1000 MCQs for Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine
  • Edition 4th
  • Year 1999
  • Author(s) Michael J. Ford MD FRCPE, A. T. Elder MB ChB FRCPE
  • ISBN-10 0443063990
  • ISBN-13 978-0443063992
  • Size 32.1 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Updated annually, the British Pharmacopoeia is the official, authoritative collection of standards for UK medicinal substances for human and veterinary use. The 2013 edition includes nearly 3900 monographs which are legally enforced by the Medicines Act 1968. Where a pharmacopoeia monograph exists, medicinal products sold or supplied in the UK must comply with the relevant monograph.

Additional Info

  • File Name British Pharmacopoeia 2013, Veterinary Vol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • Edition Har/Cdr
  • Year 2013
  • Author(s) B.P. Commission
  • ISBN-10 0113229321
  • ISBN-13 978-0113229321
  • Publisher B.P. Commission
  • Size 234 MB
  • File Format .rar/.exe
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) 2014 is the authoritative, current collection of standards for UK medicinal substances and the official source of all UK pharmaceutical quality standards. It is an essential reference for anyone involved in pharmaceutical research, development, manufacture and testing, and plays a vital role in ensuring that all medicinal substances on the UK market meet standards of safety, quality and efficacy. The BP comprises monographs, which set out the mandatory standards for active substances, excipients and formulated preparations, together with supporting General Notices, Appendices (test methods, reagents, etc) and Reference Spectra. Detailed information and guidance on various aspects of current pharmacopoeial policy and practice are provided in the Supplementary Chapters of the BP. The BP is supplied in a variety of formats designed for ease of use and a wide range of applications. The hard copy edition package comprises a boxed six volume set containing BP in five volumes and the BP (Veterinary) volume, plus CD-ROM. Purchase of the edition includes access to BP Online via www.pharmacopoeia.co.uk, the dedicated BP website.

What is new in BP 2014?

  • BP Monographs: new about 40
  • Amended monographs: 272
  • From 1st January 2014 full effective
  • New 3 chapters: supplementary
  • BP (Vet): 4 new monographs
  • BP (Vet): One supplementary chapter NEW

Additional Info

  • File Name British Pharmacopoeia 2014
  • Edition Har/Cdr
  • Year 2014
  • Author(s) B.P Commission
  • ASIN B01FGLPOCQ
  • ISBN-10 0113229356
  • ISBN-13 978-0113229352
  • Publisher B.P Commission
  • Size 0 MB
  • File Format .rar/.exe
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: United States Pharmacopoeia PDF free download ebook online USP 30 NF 25 National formulary.

Additional Info

  • File Name United States Pharmacopeia 30-NF 25
  • Edition New
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) U.S. Pharmacopeia
  • ISBN-10 1936424320
  • ISBN-13 978-1936424320
  • Publisher U.S. Pharmacopeia
  • Size 44 MB
  • File Format .rar/.exe
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Immunoassays is the first practical volume designed to help any biologist develop an immunoassay of any common format for any suitable analyte. The basic principles are described and the choices of assay types and formats listed. Methods for raising and for characterizing antibodies, for preparing radioactive, enzymatic, fluorescent and other labels, are described. Solid-phase reagents, standards and immunogens are explained, with procedures for their preparation. But most components can be obtained commercially and comprehensive lists of suppliers are given. Approaches to combining the reagents and optimizing the required assay are described, including how to eliminate common interferences, and thorough validation procedures are given. Manual and computer methods for the calculation of concentrations are explained. Since only assays that are within control give valid results, a graded and comprehensive approach to internal and external quality assurance methods is detailed, including how to prepare control samples.

Additional Info

  • File Name Immunoassays: A Practical Approach, 1st Ed. 2000
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2000
  • Editor(s) James P. Gosling
  • ISBN-10 0199637105
  • ISBN-13 978-0199637102
  • Publisher OUP; 1st Edition (Aug 31, 2000)
  • Size 14.6 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk

Available with Prescott, Harley, and Klein's Microbiology, Seventh Edition, are more than 150 animations to harness the visual impact of microbiology processes in motion.

Additional Info

  • File Name Prescott, Harley and Klein's Microbiology, 7th Ed. 2008
  • Edition 7th
  • Year 2008
  • Author(s) Joanne Willey, Linda Sherwood, Chris Woolverton
  • ISBN-10 0072992913
  • ISBN-13 978-0073302089
  • Size 76.6 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, Fourth Edition enables rapid review and assimilation of large amounts of complex information about the essentials of medical pharmacology. Clear, sequential pictures of mechanisms of action actually show students how drugs work, instead of just telling them. As in previous editions, the book features an outline format, over 500 full-color illustrations, cross-references to other volumes in the series, and over 125 review questions. Content has been thoroughly updated, and a new chapter covers toxicology.

New to this edition will be a companion Website containing all of the illustrations, fully searchable text, and an interactive question bank.

Additional Info

  • File Name Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology, 4th Edition by Pamela C. Champe
  • Edition 4th, North American Edition
  • Year 2008
  • Author(s) Pamela C. Champe
  • ISBN-10 0781771552
  • ISBN-13 978-0781771559
  • Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4 edition (July 16, 2008)
  • Size 87.3 MB
  • File Format .rar/.chm
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: A DAVIS'S NOTES BOOK! Don't be without this quick and portable reference tool for explaining, preparing, and caring for patients before, during, and after common lab and diagnostic testing.

Additional Info

  • File Name Lab Notes: Guide to Lab & Diagnostic Tests by Tracey Hopkins
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2005
  • Author(s) Tracey Hopkins
  • ISBN-10 0803621388
  • ISBN-13 978-0803621381
  • Size 1.23 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: * 2011 BMA Book Awards - Highly Commended in Pathology *

The new edition of Diagnostic Cytopathology provides the practicing and trainee cytopathologist with a comprehensive guide to the diagnostic applications of exfoliative and aspiration cytology. The book covers normal and abnormal cytological findings encountered in all body sites where cytological applications are used. Appropriate histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular correlations, together with a consideration of the possible differential diagnoses, accompany the cytological findings. The reader can see a full range of normal and abnormal findings with almost 2,000 full-colour images. The book is heavily referenced to ensure that it will serve as a practical resource for daily reference in the laboratory. A uniformity of basic chapter structure will help readers to quickly find the diagnostic answers they seek.
A practical in-depth bench book that covers everyday diagnostic work in the laboratory. It provides an accessible guide to cytological diagnostic investigation and screening. Each chapter provides a summary of major diagnostic criteria in order to quickly direct the user to the most relevant material. Cytological findings closely related to histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular appearance whenever appropriate to assist in the interpretation and recognition of tissue samples. Almost 2,000 colour illustrations incorporated throughout to provide a comprehensive visual guide.
Stay on top of the latest concepts and developments in molecular markers.
Access full text online and download images via Expert Consult.
This edition stresses not just the diagnostic cytological features of the various conditions encountered, but also the diagnostic pitfalls and the grey areas between so as to enable the reader to give more evidence-based reports. In recognition of their rapid expansion, there are new chapters on recent technological developments and on the cytodiagnosis of childhood tumours. A special section on the importance of multidisciplinary team meetings that include the cytopathologist as a core member of the team has also been included at the end of each chapter. As active members of this team, cytopathologists can define their role in the management pathway and thus bring the patient and the microscope together as never before. The full text can be accessed online and images downloaded via Expert Consult.

Additional Info

  • File Name Diagnostic Cytopathology by Gray - 3rd Edition
  • Edition 3rd
  • Year 2010
  • Author(s) Winifred Gray, Gabrijela Kocjan
  • ISBN-10 0702031542
  • ISBN-13 978-0702031540
  • Size 117 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
NICVD was established in 1963 and has grown from the 20-bed and now 500-bed hospital, serving more than 40,000 patient every year. NICVD has come a long way from a mere 3 floor building to a well-equipped and multi-functional health facility catering to both treatment and research needs of heart care in Pakistan.

Variations of leukocyte count occur in many infectious, hematologic, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases.

Therefore, laboratory evaluation of almost all patients begins with the examination of the patient’s blood for total leukocyte count and examination of the peripheral blood smear for the differential leukocyte count as well as blood cells picture. Usually, some clinical interpretations may be made from the total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count.

From total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count, the absolute count of each leukocyte type can be calculated. The absolute leukocyte count provides a more accurate picture than the differential leukocyte count. (For example, a chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient has a total leukocyte count of 100 x 103 cells µI and a differential leukocyte count of 7 percent neutrophils and 90 percent lymphocytes. By looking at the differential leukocyte count of 7 percent neutrophils alone one get the impression of very low neutrophils in this patient But if the absolute count of neutrophils is calculated, one will be surprised to see a normal neutrophil number in this patient.

Absolute neutrophil count = Total leukocyte count x neutrophil percent
=100 x 103 x 7/100 = 7 x 103 = 7000 / µl

At times of acute bacterial infection enormous numbers of neutrophils are required. Therefore, large number of neutrophils is released from bone marrow to cope with this requirement. Consequently, the number as well as the percentage of neutrophils in the blood increases several fold. Hence, an increase in total leukocyte count with increase in percentage of neutrophil is taken as an important indication of acute bacterial infection.

Leukocytosis

The terms leukocytosis and leukopenia indicate increase or decrease in the total number of leukocytes, respectively. Increase in numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes are known as neutrophilia, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis respectively.

i. Neutrophilia is the increase in peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count, above the upper limit of normal of 7.5 x 109/L (in adults). Bacterial infection is one of the common causes of neutrophilia. Neutrophilia is not a feature of viral infections (However, the development of neutrophila late in the course of a viral infection may indicate the emergence of secondary bacterial infection). There is a storage pool of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow (Such storage pool does not occur for other leukocytes).

In response to stress, such as infections the neutrophils from storage pool are released into circulation, resulting in a rise in total leukocyte count and neutrophil percentage. Moreover, there is increased neutrophil production in the bone marrow. Increased neutrophil production during bacterial infection is usually associated with the entry of less mature neutrophils from bone marrow into blood. This is indicated by the appearance of neutrophils with lesser number of nuclear segmentation in the peripheral blood picture. Band cells may also be seen in the peripheral blood smear.

This is referred to as a ‘shift to the left’. The leukemoid reaction is a reactive and excessive leukocytosis, wherein the peripheral blood smear shows the presence of immature cells (e.g. myeloblasts, promyelocytes, and myelocytes). Leukemoid picture occurs in severe or chronic infections and hemolysis. Another most common change that occurs in neutrophils during infection is the presence of toxic basophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm.

Eosinophilia is an increase in peripheral blood absolute eosinophil count beyond 0.4 x 109/L (in adults). Eosinophilia is usually associated with allergic conditions such as asthma and hay fever and parasitic infections. Eosinophilia may also occur in reactions to drugs.

Leukopenia

Decrease in total leukocyte count is known as leukopenia. Reduction in the number of neutrophils is the most frequent cause of leukopenia.

i. Neutropenia is the decrease in peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count below the lower limit of normal of 2 x 109/L (in adults). Neutropenic patients are more vulnerable to infection.

ii. Lymphopenia in adults is the decrease in peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count below the lower limit of normal of 1.5 x 109/L. Lymphopenia is common in the leukopenic prodromal phase of many viral infections. A selective depletion of helper T lymphocytes (CD4+) with or without absolute lymphopenia occurs in acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS).

Size: 6.7 to 7.7 μ in diameter.
Cytoplasm: Pink in color.
The mature red blood cell is a nonnucleated, round, biconcave cell.
Erythropoiesis: The main function of the red blood cell is to transport oxygen to the tissues. Production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) is initiated by a hormone produced by the kidney called erythropoietin. When a person’s hemoglobin level is below normal, his tissues will not receive an adequate supply of oxygen, and this will stimulate the kidneys to increase their production of erythropoietin. The increased erythropoietin will then stimulate the stem cells of the bone marrow to differentiate into the pronormoblast, and there will be an increased number of red blood cells produced. As the red cells are maturing they undergo several cellular divisions. Once the orthochromic normoblast stage is reached, however, the cell is no longer capable of mitosis but will continue to mature in the bone marrow. The reticulocyte remains in the marrow for approximately two days and is then released into the peripheral blood. The red cells of the circulating blood have a lifespan of approximately 120 days, ±20 days.
Hemoglobin structure and synthesis: Hemoglobin is made up of the protein, globin, and heme. In normal adult hemoglobin, the globin portion of each molecule consists of four polypeptide chains: two α and two β chains. These chains, in turn, are composed of 141 and 146 amino acids (arranged in a specific sequence), respectively. Each chain is bent and coiled. The heme group is composed of four pyrrole rings connected by methene bridges. In the center of this structure is an atom of iron to which oxygen is attached, when the iron is in the ferrous state (Feˉˉ).
One heme molecule will be attached to each of the α and β chains. Two α and two β chains come together to form a tetramer. The single hemoglobin molecule, therefore, consists of two α chains, two β chains, and four heme groups (thus, four atom of iron). Mature red blood cells are incapable of hemoglobin synthesis. The production of heme and globin takes place independently of each other, beginning in the polychromatic normoblast, and ending in the reticulocyte stage.