Clinical laboratory professional specialized to external quality assessment (proficiency testing) schemes for Laboratory medicine and clinical pathology. Author/Writer/Blogger
For the test of total acid phosphatase (TAP) and the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), morning sample is preferred. About 3 to 5 ml blood is collected in a vacutainer and blood is allowed to clot. Then blood is centrifuged for 10 minutes at 4500 rpm in order to get the clear serum. The test is performed immediately. However, the sample can be preserved for 24 hours if kept at 2-8º C.
Due to the high level of acid phosphatase in semen, its measurement is very important in rape cases. For the collection of a sample from the victim's body, following methods are applied.
Boric acid converts the urine into a bacteriostatic medium, which inhibits the growth of bacteria in urine and preserves the urine for its bacteriological examination.
Some medicines like aspirin, diuretics, antibiotics, birth control medication and hormones therapy (e.g. Estrogen) may interfere with laboratory findings, so avoid such types of medicine before preparing yourself for the laboratory test.
Anal sex refers to the activity in which penis is inserted into the anus. Some people found anal sex more joyful, but the fact is that the practice has the downside and it contains so many health risks.
It is prohibited in various cultures especially with regard to religious prohibition. It is a criminal offense in some countries and punishable by corporal or capital punishments. By disparity, people regard it a valid and natural form of sexual activity.
There are so many health risks associated with the anal sex and anal intercourse, for both partners. Some of the health risks which may affect both homosexual and heterosexual couples are listed below.
Risk of bacterial infection: E. coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria, that is commonly found in the lower intestine. Anal sex increases the risk of transmission of E. coli bacteria from anal to your penis, which may cause a severe type of urinary tract infection.
E. coli may cause many bacterial infections, including, urinary tract infection (UTI), meningitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, bacteremia, and pneumonia.
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV): It may be transmitted through the anal intercourse. Hepatitis C Virus is the cause of fetal liver chronic disease. It is a life-threatening virus and may lead to death.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV): It may be transmitted through the anal intercourse and may cause to the anal wart. A research showed that some of the strain of HPV have carcinogenic potential. Some strains of HPV cause cancer of the cervix in women and also cause cancer of the throat.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): There is a greater risk of transmission of HIV through anal intercourse. It is a life-threatening virus and leads to death.
Weakening of the anal sphincter: The anal anus is enclosed by the ring-like muscle, called the anal sphincter. The main function of anal sphincter is to hold the feces until you get to the toilet. After the excretion of feces, it tightens. Penetration of something like a penis inside the anal can be difficult and painful. Anal intercourse may lead to the weakening of the sphincter muscles, and make it hard to hold the feces.
Lack of natural lubrication: Naturally, the anal is not made for sex. The anal has lack of lubricant as vagina have, which makes the penetration harder and painful. Penetration can tear the tissues inside the anal and cause the wound, allowing viruses and bacteria to easily enter the bloodstream. Somehow, usage of oil or other lubricants can help in preventing the tearing of tissues inside the anal but doesn't completely.
A research showed that risk of transmission of HIV and HPV is much higher in anal sex and compared to the vaginal sex.
There is no way to completely eliminate the risk factors of anal sex until you avoid the anal sex. However, you can reduce the risk by the following tips.
|DISTILLED WATER||REVERSE OSMOSIS (RO) WATER||DEIONIZED (DI) WATER|
|Distillation is employed in the main in laboratories and factories, wherever it's required. Reverse diffusion is widely employed in water treatment plants, each reception and for the manufacture of assorted drinks, drinking water, etc.||
||DI water is as pure because the water or maybe purer|
Green tea is frequently touted as one of the most beneficial drink alternatives. Similarly, as with different sorts of tea, green tea originates from Camellia sinensis plant clears out. Be that as it may, contrasted and dark tea, green tea brings down in caffeine and has a high epigallocatechin gallate content. Green tea is positively more advantageous than sugary soda pops, yet regardless you hazard symptoms from this refreshment. Such dangers may even incorporate lifted pulse, additionally called hypertension.
Box 864.1 Thyroid autoantibodies
|1. TSH Normal, FT4 Normal||Euthyroid|
|2. Low TSH, Low FT4||Secondary hypothyroidism|
|3. High TSH, Normal FT4||Subclinical hypothyroidism|
|4. High TSH, Low FT4||Primary hypothyroidism|
|5. Low TSH, Normal FT4, Normal FT3||Subclinical hyperthyroidism|
|6. Low TSH, Normal FT4, High FT3||T3 toxicosis|
|7. Low TSH, High FT4||Primary hyperthyroidism|
Among the endocrine disorders, disorders of the thyroid are common and are only next in frequency to diabetes mellitus. They are more common in women than in men. Functional thyroid disorders can be divided into two types depending on the activity of the thyroid gland: hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormones), and hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid hormones).