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Myocardial cell necrosis leads to membrane damage and leakage of cell contents into the bloodstream. This forms the basis for the measurement of biochemical markers of myocardial injury in blood.
A single whole blood donation can be separated into different components to provide treatment to more than one patient. One unit of whole blood can be broken down into one unit of packed red cells, one unit of platelets, and one unit of fresh frozen plasma/cryoprecipitate. This practice avoids wastage of collected whole blood (each component is stored at a temperature that is optimal for that component), allows administration of specific replacement therapy, and also avoids transfusion of unnecessary blood elements that are not required by the patient.
The organisms likely to be transmitted by transfusion are usually those, which are prevalent in a particular geographic area or population.
Blood transfusion is a life-saving procedure in an appropriate setting and there are no side-effects in the majority of cases. However, it is a potentially harmful procedure and every recipient of transfusion is at risk of an adverse reaction. It should be prescribed only if there is a definite clinical indication. This is because even with best possible blood banking standards, transmission of infections or other complications can occur.
Graying or whitening of hair is a natural process and as the man ages, the capability to synthesize the normal amount of melanin pigment declines this ultimately results in grey or whitening of hair. Melanin is a pigment produced by the cells of hair follicles which are small sacs that line skin cells. These cells give your hair its color. But as the man ages, hair follicles can lose pigment, resulting in gray or white hair.
Prediabetes is a state in which plasma glucose level is higher than normal but not high enough for the diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus (DM).
In long-standing Diabetes Mellitus (DM) of both types, a wide variety of lesions develop in many organs, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality.
Insulin is the major hormone regulating blood glucose level. Insulin is synthesized by β cells of pancreas as preproinsulin, which is rapidly converted to proinsulin. Proinsulin is a single chain polypeptide. In the Golgi apparatus, proinsulin is broken down into 2 units- insulin (51 amino acids) and C (connecting)-polypeptide (31 amino acids) (Figure 1192.1).