POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEM
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- The poultry houses or farms are to be located in non-residential areas so that the poultry is away from noise, dust, etc.
- The farm should be constructed in such a way that it maintains good environmental conditions.
- The farm should be elevated from the ground. Due to this, water may not get into the farm during rainy season.
- The poultry farms are to be constructed in east to west direction along their length. As a result, good sun-shine is available.
- The farm is to be located in a place where transport facilities are available. Water, electricity, feed and equipment are to be within the reach of the farm.
- The farm is to be located near the consumer areas.
- The poultry housing also requires proper temperature and light. At 30° C, the chicken can lay eggs well. Electric bulbs should be arranged at a height of 7ff. in poultry farms to provide warmness. These lights are to be switched on during first seven weeks. A relative humidity of 50-60% is ideal for poultry.
- The sheds are to be ventilated properly. Proper ventilation helps in providing sufficient oxygen for birds and removes harmful gases such as ammonia and carbon dioxide. It also removes moisture in the house and helps in keeping optimum temperatures. To facilitate ventilation, the farm house is to be constructed in such a way that it should have an open front, adjustable windows or cloth covered frames and ventilation at ridge level.
- The flooring of poultry house is to be constructed either with cement or napa slabs. Its roof is to be constructed either with palmyra leaves or cement sheets.
- The chicken in a poultry farm are to be fed with sufficient food and water. Food troughs and water troughs are to be arranged depending on the size of poultry farm. The egg laying pots are also to be established in poultry sheds. One food trough is to be kept for every 20 fowls. The food troughs should not be filled completely with food material. The water given to fowls should be always clean and sufficient.
- Deep Litter System
- Cage System
- In this method, there is no wastage of space and food.
- Chicks involved in cannibalism may be easily identified and removed. Cannibalism in poultry is referred to as one bird pecking at the other bird.
- The diseased birds can easily be separated.
- Less labor is involved in this method.
- Collection of eggs is an easy process.
- Mortality rate is less in this system.
- The cracked eggs are common.
- It is difficult to clean the individual cages and to dispose the manure.
- The food may not be distributed accurately depending on the consumption of the birds in the cage.
- The birds are frequently subjected to a disease called cage layer fatigue. The bird lies on its side giving an impression that it is affected with paralysis. Hence, this is referred to as cage paralysis or cage layer fatigue.
- Fatty liver syndrome is common in cage system. It is characterised by
(a) a gradual drop in egg production (40% - 10%),
(b) fatty, enlarged, tan colored liver is noticeable, and
(c) birds become fatty.
- In summer, water is to be sprinkled on cages. This is due to the fact that cage poultry needs protection from excessive heat in severe summer.
- The chicks should be subjected to dubbing and debeaking. As a result of debeaking, the chicken may not involve in cannibalism and can easily procure the soft food without waste.