The entire earth shows animal fauna. As per the distribution of the fauna the earth is divided into Zoogeographical regions.
Australian region contains Australia, Newzealand, New Guinea and nearby Islands in the Pacific ocean Walice” includes Celebas islands in Australian region. But now a days it was kept in Oriental region.
Sub Regions of Australian Region: The realm is sub divided into four sub regions.
- Australian subregion
- Austromalayan Subregion
- Polynesian Subregion
- Newzealand Subregion
a) Australian Sub-region: It includes Australia and Tasmania. This region is located towards Southwest of Pacific ocean. In this region very peculiar fauna is seen. It is because this part is separated from the main land by a big stretch of Ocean. It shows tropical and temperate climate.
In this subregion 34 genera of marsupials included. Hence it is called “Home of Marsupials”.
Tailed Amphibians ar-reported in this region. Flightless birds like Emus are included in this region.
b) Austromalayan Sub-region: This region includes Malayan Archepelago islands, New Guinea, Solmon Islands etc.,
- Crowned Pigeons, Fly river Turtles are common.
- Dendrolagus, Dayrus etc., Marsupials are present
c) Polynesian Sub-region: This region includes Polynesian Islands. In this region fauna is poor. Tooth build Pigeons are common.
d) Newzealand Sub-region: In this subregion Newzealand is included.
- In this subregion snakes are absent
- Sphenodon a living fossil is confined to this region only.
- In this region Kiwi flightless birds are present Hence these people are called Kiwis. Kiwi is the National bird of Newzealand.
- Rats and Bats are common.
Fauna of Australian Region:
Many Zoogeography workers thought that Australia and America might have connected by a landmass. This landmass is called “Gondwana landmass”. Because of this landmass the fauna of Australia and America are similar. But after sometime this Gondwana landmass was submerged, Australia as separated. Hence Australian fauna become isolated. In this region Eutherian mammals were not invaded because of the absence of Carnivorous Eutherians. Marsupials have in- creased in their number. Many important Marsupials were developed.
Mammalian Fauna in Australian region:
- Ornithorhynchus (Duck billed Platypus),
- Macropus (Kangaroo),
- Dasous (Tiger Cat),
- Pteropus (Flying fox),
- Paramoles (Marsupial Bandicoot),
- Echidna(Spiny ant eater),
- Ratus ratus (Rat),
- Equs equs (Horse),
- Equsacinus (Donkey),
- Sus (Pig).
Avian Fauna in Australian region:
In this region flightless birds are common.
- Apteryx (Kiwi); It is present only in Newzealand.
- Dromaeus (Emu)New Guinea.
- Casso wails-Present in Australia.
These flightless birds are common in this region. The other birds can be seen in this region are
- Pigeon (Columba livia),
- Passer domesticus (Sparrow),
- Tooth billed Region.
Reptiles in Australian Region:
- In Newzealand snakes are absent.
- Sphenodon is seen only in this region.
- Varanus (Monitor Lizard)
- Testudo elegans,
- Caretta caretta,
- Calotes versicolor,
- Mabuya etc., Reptiles are seen.
Tailed Amphibians, Frogs and Apodans are common in Australian region.
- Rana species,
- Hyla arbouria ,
- Micro hyla,
- Alytes etc., Amphibians are common.
Fishes in Australian region:
In this region the most important fish is a lung fish.
Ceratodous is seen in this region. It is called “Australian Lung Fish”. In this region many other fresh water and marine fishes are present.
- Catla catla.
Invertebrates In the Australian region “Trigonia” a fresh water bivalved Molluscan is seen.
Thus Australian realm is showing faunal Characters.