This region includes S. America, Central America, Mexico and West Indies.
This is divided into 4 sub-regions.
- Chillian sub region
- Brezelian sub region
- Mexicon sub-region
- West Indies sub-region.
This region shows tropical conditions. The southern part of South America shows temperate zones, because of these varied environmental conditions Luxuriant forests, Deserts, Plains and Rivers are common.
- In the Amazon region thick forests are present. They are all evergreen forests.
- Grassy plains e present in Argentina.
- This region shows Andes Mountains. Because of these conditions good vegetation is seen and rich fauna is present.
1. Chillian Sub-region: It includes West Coast of South America. It contains Ands mountain ranges Bolivea, Peru, Argentina. ,.
It includes 3 toed Ostrich called Rhea americana, Clamas, Oil birds are common.
2. Brazelian Sub-region: It includes tropical forests of South America. It shows evergreen forests. Plains are also seen Rivers are present hence more vegetation is seen. It supports rich fauna. in this region Amrican Monkey, Blood sucking bats (Vampire) Armadillos are common. ‘
3. Mexican Sub-region: North of isthmus of Panama is called Mexkon sub-region. This region shows rocky mountains. It is showing sub. tropical conditions. in this region Tapiers, Mudterrapins etc., are common.
4. West Indies or Antelian Sub-region: The region contains West Indies, islands. Trinidad and Tobago are not included in this region. These islands contain mountains. In this sub-region the Vertebrate fauna is poor.
Fauna in neotropical region:
In this region many endemic species are present, and 39 families are recognised.
Fishes in Neotropical region: In this region many fresh water fishes are present. The important features of the regions are the absence of Carps. In this region Cat fishes; Trygonids, Edi fishes are present.
In South American region one Dipnoi fish is present Lepidosiren is called South American Fresh water Lung fish.
Amphibians in Neotropical region: In this zone 14 families of Amphibians are present 1) Pipa pipa 2) Hyla 3) Bufo 4) Rana etc.
Caecelians are also represented in this region 1) Siphanophis 2) Rainotrema, Urodeles are very few.
Reptiles in neotropical regions: The reptiles of the sub-region will resemble those of Ethiopian and Oriental zone.
- Alligator etc., Crocodiles are common.
Many turtles, and Tortoises are common in this region.
15 families of lizards are represented out of which 5 families are reported in this region.
- Helodermidae ( Poison lizard)
- Crcosauridae etc.
In this region many snakes are present. Coral snakes, Pit vipers, Typhiops and many other snakes are present.
Birds in Neotropical: Avian fauna of this region i striking and peculiar. Hence South America is called Bird continent. (Neotropical region is referred as Bird continent).
- Rhea americana ( 3 toed ostrich) - American Ostrich
- Tinamus (Flightless bird is Endemic to this region)
- Wood peckers
- King fishers
- Starks are common
Ant thrushers, Tree creepers, Oil birds are endemic to this region only.
Mammals in neotropical region: 32 families are available. Nearly 10 families are endemic to this region.
Ex: Hapalidae, Cebidae etc. families of New World monkeys.
Armadillos, sloths, Ant eaters, Didelphis etc., are also seen in this region.
1) Tapiers 2) Uamas 3)Deer 4) Squirrels 5) Rabbit 6) Armadios are common in this region.
In this region Hayeans (Aye-aye), Hedge-hog and Native Horses are absent