Pathology

Examination is carried out after liquefaction of semen that occurs usually within 20-30 minutes of…
This includes examination of material obtained from vagina, stains from clothing, skin, hair, or other…
1. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINARY SEDIMENT Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3 or…
The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below: Proteins Glucose…
Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”.
Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and…
Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and…
The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic…
1. HEAT AND ACETIC ACID TEST (BOILING TEST)   This test is based on the…
1. COPPER REDUCTION METHODS A. Benedict’s qualitative test: When urine is boiled in Benedict’s qualitative…
The parameters to be examined on physical examination of urine are listed below. Volume Color…
Fresh urine sample should be used because on standing urobilinogen is converted to urobilin, which…
Porphyrias (from Greek porphura meaning purple pigment; the name is probably derived from purple discoloration…
Page 4 of 4