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14 Aug 2017
The most important test in semen analysis for infertility is microscopic examination of the semen.   SPERM MOTILITY   The first laboratory assessment of sperm function in a wet preparation…
14 Aug 2017
Biochemical markers (Table 831.1) can be measured in semen to test the secretions of accessory structures. These include fructose (seminal vesicles), zinc, citric acid or acid phosphatase (prostate), and α-glucosidase…
14 Aug 2017
Examination is carried out after liquefaction of semen that occurs usually within 20-30 minutes of ejaculation.   1. VISUAL APPEARANCE   Normal semen is viscous and opaque gray-white in appearance.…
13 Aug 2017
This includes examination of material obtained from vagina, stains from clothing, skin, hair, or other body parts for semen. This is carried out in cases of alleged rape or sexual…
13 Aug 2017
1. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINARY SEDIMENT Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3 or more number of red blood cells per high power field on microscopic examination of urinary…
10 Aug 2017
The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below: Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Hemoglobin Myoglobin Nitrite or leukocyte esterase PROTEINS Normally, kidneys…
10 Aug 2017
Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”. Urine consists of various microscopic, insoluble, solid elements in suspension. These elements are classified as…
10 Aug 2017
Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic. These bile acids combine with glycine or taurine to form complex salts or acids.…
09 Aug 2017
Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and on standing at room temperature. Biliverdin cannot be detected by tests that detect bilirubin. Therefore…
07 Aug 2017
The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic acid 20%, and acetone 2%. No method for detection of ketonuria reacts with all the…
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