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One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a person from the following formula (Cockcroft and Gault):     Creatinine clearance in ml/min =…
Glomerular filtration rate refers to the rate in ml/min at which a substance is cleared from the circulation by the glomeruli. The ability of the glomeruli to filter a substance…
Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous renal biopsy was first performed by Alwall in 1944.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia due to deficiency and/or diminished effectiveness of insulin. There are derangements of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
Pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in serum or urine. Although pregnancy is the most common reason for ordering the test for hCG, measurement of hCG is also indicated…
Semen (or seminal fluid) is a fluid that is emitted from the male genital tract and contains sperms that are capable of fertilizing female ova. Structures involved in production of…
These tests are available only in specialized andrology laboratories. The tests are not standardized thus making interpretation difficult. If used singly, a sperm function test may not be helpful in…
ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES The role of antisperm antibodies in causation of male infertility is controversial. The immunological tests done on seminal fluid include mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR test) and immunobead test.…
The most important test in semen analysis for infertility is microscopic examination of the semen.
Biochemical markers (Table 831.1) can be measured in semen to test the secretions of accessory structures. These include fructose (seminal vesicles), zinc, citric acid or acid phosphatase (prostate), and α-glucosidase…
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