Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer).Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion…
In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e.…
To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion. Basal acid output (BAO)…
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia"study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist,…
Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for Parasites A random specimen of stool (at least 4 ml or 4 cm³) is collected…
Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH Figure 845.1 Chemical…
Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water. 1. Glycosuria In renal…
Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of glomerular damage in diabetes mellitus is occurrence of microalbuminuria (albuminuria in the range of 30…
Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Although convenient, they are insensitive markers of glomerular function.   Blood Urea Nitrogen…
One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a person from the following formula (Cockcroft and Gault):     Creatinine clearance in ml/min =…
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