Pathology

The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process…
The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that…
Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is…
Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease,…
Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of…
In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric…
To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting…
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia"study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the…
Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for…
Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult…
Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate…
Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of…
Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and…
Glomerular filtration rate refers to the rate in ml/min at which a substance is cleared…
Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous…
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia due to…
Page 2 of 4