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22 Sep 2017
The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that produce spermatozoa and secrete testosterone), a paired system of ducts comprising of epididymis, vasa deferentia,…
08 Sep 2017
Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is the upper part surrounding the entrance of the esophagus and is lined by the mucus-secreting…
07 Sep 2017
Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac…
07 Sep 2017
Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer).Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion…
07 Sep 2017
In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e.…
05 Sep 2017
To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion.   Basal acid…
04 Sep 2017
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia"study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist,…
30 Aug 2017
Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for Parasites A random specimen of stool (at least 4 ml or 4 cm³) is collected…
30 Aug 2017
Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH Figure 845.1 Chemical…
28 Aug 2017
Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function   Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water.   1. Glycosuria:…
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