The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below: Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Hemoglobin Myoglobin Nitrite or leukocyte esterase PROTEINS Normally, kidneys…
Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”. Urine consists of various microscopic, insoluble, solid elements in suspension. These elements are classified as…
Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic. These bile acids combine with glycine or taurine to form complex salts or acids.…
Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and on standing at room temperature. Biliverdin cannot be detected by tests that detect bilirubin. Therefore…
The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic acid 20%, and acetone 2%. No method for detection of ketonuria reacts with all the…
1. HEAT AND ACETIC ACID TEST (BOILING TEST)   This test is based on the principle that proteins get precipitated when boiled in an acidic solution.   Method   Urine…
1. COPPER REDUCTION METHODS A. Benedict’s qualitative test: When urine is boiled in Benedict’s qualitative solution, blue alkaline copper sulphate is reduced to red-brown cuprous oxide if a reducing agent…
The parameters to be examined on physical examination of urine are listed below. Volume Color Appearance Odor Specific Gravity pH VOLUME Volume of only the 24-hr specimen of urine needs…
Fresh urine sample should be used because on standing urobilinogen is converted to urobilin, which cannot be detected by routine tests. A timed (2-hour postprandial) sample can also be used…
Porphyrias (from Greek porphura meaning purple pigment; the name is probably derived from purple discoloration of some body fluids during the attack) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders resulting…
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