Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous renal biopsy was first performed by Alwall in 1944. In renal disease, renal biopsy is…
In DM, applications of laboratory tests are as follows: Diagnosis of DM Screening of DM Assessment of glycemic control Assessment of associated long-term risks Management of acute metabolic complications. LABORATORY…
Pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in serum or urine. Although pregnancy is the most common reason for ordering the test for hCG, measurement of hCG is also indicated…
 Box 835.1 Contributions to semen volume   • Testes and epididymis: 10% • Seminal vesicles: 50% • Prostate: 40% • Cowper’s glands: Small volume Semen (or seminal fluid) is a…
These tests are available only in specialized andrology laboratories. The tests are not standardized thus making interpretation difficult. If used singly, a sperm function test may not be helpful in…
ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES The role of antisperm antibodies in causation of male infertility is controversial. The immunological tests done on seminal fluid include mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR test) and immunobead test.…
The most important test in semen analysis for infertility is microscopic examination of the semen.   SPERM MOTILITY   The first laboratory assessment of sperm function in a wet preparation…
Biochemical markers (Table 831.1) can be measured in semen to test the secretions of accessory structures. These include fructose (seminal vesicles), zinc, citric acid or acid phosphatase (prostate), and α-glucosidase…
Examination is carried out after liquefaction of semen that occurs usually within 20-30 minutes of ejaculation.   1. VISUAL APPEARANCE   Normal semen is viscous and opaque gray-white in appearance.…
1. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINARY SEDIMENT Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3 or more number of red blood cells per high power field on microscopic examination of urinary…
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