Clinical Pathology

The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process…
Thursday, 21 September 2017 19:03

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

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The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 20:21

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

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Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease,…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:18

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric…
Tuesday, 05 September 2017 18:51

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting…
Wednesday, 30 August 2017 18:26

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

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Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for…
Tuesday, 29 August 2017 20:21

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

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Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult…
Sunday, 27 August 2017 20:46

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

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Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate…
Sunday, 27 August 2017 08:15

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

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Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of…
Saturday, 26 August 2017 20:43

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

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Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and…
One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a…
Glomerular filtration rate refers to the rate in ml/min at which a substance is cleared…
Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous…
Thursday, 17 August 2017 16:35

ROLE OF LABORATORY TESTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia due to…
Wednesday, 16 August 2017 07:56

PREGNANCY TESTS

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Pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in serum or urine. Although pregnancy is the…
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