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Tuesday, 05 September 2017 18:51

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion. Basal acid output (BAO)…
Wednesday, 30 August 2017 18:26

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

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Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for Parasites A random specimen of stool (at least 4 ml or 4 cm³) is collected…
Tuesday, 29 August 2017 20:21

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

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Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH Figure 845.1:…
Sunday, 27 August 2017 08:15

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

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Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of glomerular damage in diabetes mellitus is occurrence of microalbuminuria (albuminuria in the range of 30…
Monday, 07 August 2017 08:36

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF PROTEINURIA

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1. HEAT AND ACETIC ACID TEST (BOILING TEST)   This test is based on the principle that proteins get precipitated when boiled in an acidic solution.   Method   Urine…
Saturday, 26 August 2017 20:43

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

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Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Although convenient, they are insensitive markers of glomerular function.   Blood Urea Nitrogen…
One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a person from the following formula (Cockcroft and Gault):     Creatinine clearance in ml/min =…
Thursday, 03 August 2017 13:15

LABORATORY TESTS IN PORPHYRIAS

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Porphyrias (from Greek porphura meaning purple pigment; the name is probably derived from purple discoloration of some body fluids during the attack) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders resulting…
Saturday, 05 August 2017 10:23

TEST FOR DETECTION OF UROBILINOGEN IN URINE

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Fresh urine sample should be used because on standing urobilinogen is converted to urobilin, which cannot be detected by routine tests. A timed (2-hour postprandial) sample can also be used…