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Saturday, 05 August 2017 12:22

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

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The parameters to be examined on physical examination of urine are listed below. Volume Color Appearance Odor Specific Gravity pH VOLUME Volume of only the 24-hr specimen of urine needs…
Saturday, 05 August 2017 18:28

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF GLUCOSE IN URINE

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1. COPPER REDUCTION METHODS A. Benedict’s qualitative test: When urine is boiled in Benedict’s qualitative solution, blue alkaline copper sulphate is reduced to red-brown cuprous oxide if a reducing agent…
Monday, 07 August 2017 13:11

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF KETONES IN URINE

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The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic acid 20%, and acetone 2%. No method for detection of ketonuria reacts with all the…
Wednesday, 09 August 2017 07:21

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILIRUBIN IN URINE

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Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and on standing at room temperature. Biliverdin cannot be detected by tests that detect bilirubin. Therefore…
Wednesday, 09 August 2017 19:34

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILE SALTS IN URINE

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Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic. These bile acids combine with glycine or taurine to form complex salts or acids.…
Wednesday, 09 August 2017 19:57

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINE

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Microscopic examination of urine is also called as the “liquid biopsy of the urinary tract”.
Thursday, 10 August 2017 18:29

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

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The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below: Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Hemoglobin Myoglobin Nitrite or leukocyte esterase PROTEINS Normally, kidneys…
Saturday, 12 August 2017 21:34

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF BLOOD IN URINE

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1. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINARY SEDIMENT Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3 or more number of red blood cells per high power field on microscopic examination of urinary…
Glomerular filtration rate refers to the rate in ml/min at which a substance is cleared from the circulation by the glomeruli. The ability of the glomeruli to filter a substance…