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Among the endocrine disorders, disorders of the thyroid are common and are only next in frequency to diabetes mellitus. They are more common in women than in men. Functional thyroid…
Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous renal biopsy was first performed by Alwall in 1944.
Thursday, 28 September 2017 09:23

TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

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Total serum thyroxine includes both free and protein-bound thyroxine and is usually measured by competitive immunoassay. Normal level in adults is 5.0-12.0 μg/dl.   Test for total thyroxine or free…
Friday, 22 September 2017 08:37

FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

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The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process of oogenesis. The ova are released by the process of ovulation in a cyclical manner…
Thursday, 21 September 2017 19:03

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

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The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that produce spermatozoa and secrete testosterone), a paired system of ducts comprising of epididymis, vasa deferentia,…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 20:21

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

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Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is the upper part surrounding the entrance of the esophagus and is lined by the mucus-secreting…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer). Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid…
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:18

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

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In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e.…