Size: 6.7 to 7.7 μ in diameter.
Cytoplasm: Pink in color.
The mature red blood cell is a nonnucleated, round, biconcave cell.
Erythropoiesis: The main function of the red blood cell is to transport oxygen to the tissues. Production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) is initiated by a hormone produced by the kidney called erythropoietin. When a person’s hemoglobin level is below normal, his tissues will not receive an adequate supply of oxygen, and this will stimulate the kidneys to increase their production of erythropoietin. The increased erythropoietin will then stimulate the stem cells of the bone marrow to differentiate into the pronormoblast, and there will be an increased number of red blood cells produced. As the red cells are maturing they undergo several cellular divisions. Once the orthochromic normoblast stage is reached, however, the cell is no longer capable of mitosis but will continue to mature in the bone marrow. The reticulocyte remains in the marrow for approximately two days and is then released into the peripheral blood. The red cells of the circulating blood have a lifespan of approximately 120 days, ±20 days.
Hemoglobin structure and synthesis: Hemoglobin is made up of the protein, globin, and heme. In normal adult hemoglobin, the globin portion of each molecule consists of four polypeptide chains: two α and two β chains. These chains, in turn, are composed of 141 and 146 amino acids (arranged in a specific sequence), respectively. Each chain is bent and coiled. The heme group is composed of four pyrrole rings connected by methene bridges. In the center of this structure is an atom of iron to which oxygen is attached, when the iron is in the ferrous state (Feˉˉ).
One heme molecule will be attached to each of the α and β chains. Two α and two β chains come together to form a tetramer. The single hemoglobin molecule, therefore, consists of two α chains, two β chains, and four heme groups (thus, four atom of iron). Mature red blood cells are incapable of hemoglobin synthesis. The production of heme and globin takes place independently of each other, beginning in the polychromatic normoblast, and ending in the reticulocyte stage.

The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension) that put them at an increased risk of developing kidney disease. Studies have shown that identifying individuals in the very early stages of kidney disease helps people and healthcare providers adjust treatment. Controlling diabetes and hypertension by maintaining tight glycemic control and reducing blood pressure delay or prevent the progression of kidney disease.

Cholinesterase testing has two main uses:
  • It can be used to detect and diagnose organophosphate pesticide exposure and/or poisoning. It may also be used to monitor those who may be at increased risk of exposure to organophosphate compounds, such as those who work in agricultural and chemical industries, and to monitor those who are being treated for exposure. Typically, tests for red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serum pseudocholinesterase (PChE) are used for this purpose.
  • It can be used several days prior to a surgical procedure to determine if someone with a history of or family history of post-operative paralysis following the use of succinylcholine, a common muscle relaxant used for anesthesia, is at risk of having this reaction. In these cases, the test for pseudocholinesterase is usually used. A second test, referred to as a dibucaine inhibition test, may be done to help determine the extent to which the activity of the enzyme is decreased.
 
When is it ordered?
People who work with organophosphate compounds in the farming or chemical industries may be routinely monitored to assess any adverse exposure, once baseline levels have been established. Cholinesterase testing can also be used to assess any acute exposure to these compounds, which can cause neuromuscular damage. Toxicity can follow a rapid absorption of the compound in the lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms of toxicity are varied depending on the compound, quantity, and the site of exposure. Early symptoms may include:
  • Headache, dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Excessive tearing in the eyes, sweating and/or salivation
 
As the effects of the poisoning worsen, some additional symptoms may appear:
  • Vomiting, diarrhea
  • Dark or blurred vision due to constricted pupils
  • Muscle weakness, twitching, lack of coordination
  • Slowed breathing leading to respiratory failure, requiring lifesaving ventilation
  • In serious cases, seizures, coma, and death
 
Pre-operative screening for pseudocholinesterase activity is advised if a person or a close relative has experienced prolonged paralysis and apnea after the use of succinylcholine for anesthesia during an operation.
 
What does the test result mean?
In monitoring for occupational pesticide exposure
Following exposure to organophosphate compounds, AChE and PChE activity can fall to about 80% of normal before any symptoms occur and drop to 40% of normal before the symptoms become severe. Those who are regularly exposed to these compounds may be monitored for toxic exposure by establishing a baseline activity level and then testing on a regular basis to watch for a significant reduction on activity of acetylcholinesterase or pseudocholinesterase.
 
In testing for acute pesticide exposure/poisoning
Significantly decreased cholinesterase activity levels usually indicate excessive absorption of organophosphate compounds. Pseudocholinesterase and RBC acetylcholinesterase activity are usually decreased within a few minutes to hours after exposure. Pseudocholinesterase activity may regenerate in a few days to weeks, while acetylcholinesterase activity will remain low for as long as one to three months. Both plasma and RBC activities are immediately affected by pesticide exposure but, upon removal from exposure, AChE and PChE regenerate at different rates since AChE is produced in blood cells, which have a lifespan of 120 days, whereas PChE is produced in the liver, with a half-life of about two weeks.
 
In testing for succinylcholine sensitivity
About 3% of people have low activity levels of pseudocholinesterase due to an inherited deficiency and will have prolonged effects from the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Total quantitative pseudocholinesterase levels will be evaluated prior to surgery for patients with a history or family history of prolonged apnea after use of this drug. Low activity levels of pseudocholinesterase levels indicate that these people may be at increased risk of experiencing prolonged effects of the muscle relaxant. A second test, the dibucaine inhibition test, may also be performed to help characterize the degree of a person's sensitivity to the drug. The lower the result from a dibucaine inhibition test, the greater the risk of drug sensitivity.
Reduced cholinesterase levels can also be caused by chronic liver disease and malnutrition. Total cholinesterase activity can be lowered in a number of other conditions, including pregnancy, renal disease, shock, and some cancers.
 
Is there anything else I should know?
If someone unexpectedly has prolonged apnea after surgery, testing for succinylcholine sensitivity may be performed; however, the sample should be obtained after 24 to 48 hours have elapsed following the surgery to avoid interference by any drugs given during the surgery that could affect the results. Drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors may have a moderate benefit in those with early diagnosed Alzheimer's disease.
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Platelets

Platelets, also called "thrombocytes", are blood cells whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding. Platelets have no nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm which are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. These unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures, 2–3 µm in greatest diameter. Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals (e.g. birds, amphibians) thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells. There are two methods for estimation of erythrocyte count:
•    Manual or microscopic method
•    Automated method
 
MANUAL METHOD
 
Principle
Free-flowing capillary or well-mixed anticoagulated venous blood is added to a diluent at a specific volume in the Unopette reservoir.  The diluents (1% ammonium oxalate) lyses the erythrocytes but preserves leukocytes and platelets.  A 20 µL pipette is used with 1.98 ml of diluents to make a 1:100 dilution. The diluted blood is added to the hemacytometer chamber.  Cells are allowed to settle for 10 minutes before leukocytes and platelets are counted. (Always refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for the procedure.)
 
Equipment
Hemocytometer with cover glass, compound microscope. Unopette capillary pipette, lint-free wipe, alcohol pads,  hand counter, petri dish with moist filter paper.
 
Reagent
Ammonium oxalate: 11.45 gm
Sorensen’s phosphate buffer: 1.0 gm
Thimerosal: 0.1 gm
Distilled water: 1000 ml
 
Specimen
EDTA-anticoagulated blood or capillary blood is preferred.
 
Method
(1) Using the protective shield on the capillary pipette, puncture diaphragm of  Unopette reservoir.    
(2) Remove shield from pipette assembly by twisting. Holding pipette almost horizontally, touch tip of pipette to blood.  Pipette will fill by capillary action. Filling will cease automatically when the blood reaches the end of the capillary bore in the neck of the pipette.
(3) Wipe the outside of the capillary pipette to remove excess blood that would interfere with the dilution factor.
(4) Squeeze reservoir slightly to force out some air while simultaneously maintaining pressure on reservoir.
(5) Cover opening of overflow chamber of pipette with index finger and seat pipet securely in reservoir neck.
(6) Release pressure on reservoir. Then remove finger from pipette opening. At this  time negative pressure will draw blood into reservoir.
(7) Squeeze reservoir gently two or three times to rinse capillary bore forcing diluent up int, but not out of, overflow chamber, releasing pressure each time to return mixture to reservoir.
(8) Place index finger over upper opening and gently invert several times to thoroughly mix blood with diuent.
(9) Cover overflow chamber with pipette shield and incubate at room temperature for 10 minutes before charging the hemacytometer.
(10) Meticulously clean the hemacytometer with alcohol or other cleaning solution. This is important because dust particles and other debris can be mistaken for platelets especially on a light microscope. Allow to dry completely before charging with diluted specimen.
(11) To charge the hemacyto-meter, convert to dropper assembly by withdrawing pipette from reservoir and reseating securely in reverse position.
(12) Invert reservoir and discard the first 3 or 4 drops of mixture.
(13) Carefully charge hemacyto-meter with diluted blood by gently squeezing sides of reservoir to expel contents until chamber is properly filled.
(14) Place hemacytometer in moist Petri dish for 10 minutes to allow platelets to settle.  (Moistened filter paper retains evaporation of diluted specimen while standing.)
(15) Mount the hemacytometer on the microscope and lower its condenser.
(16) Procedure for counting platelets:

• Under 40x magnification, scan to ensure even distribution.  Platelets are counted in all twenty-five small squares within the large center square. Platelets appear greenish, not refractile.
• Count cells starting in the upper left of the large middle square.  Continue counting to the right hand square, drop down to the next row; continue counting in this fashion until the total area in that middle square (all 25 squares) have been counted.
• Count all cells that touch any of the upper and left lines, do not count any  cell that touches a lower or right line.
• Count both sides of the hemocyt-ometer and take the average.
 
Calculation
 
cells/mm3 =      Tc x Rd     
                    Ns x As x Ds
 
     Where Tc is the number of cells counted, Rd is the reciprocal of dilution, Ns is the number of squares counted, As area of each square and Ds is the depth of the solution.
 
Example:
Total number of cells= 230
Dilution 1:100
Number of squares counted: 1
Area of each square: 1 mm3
Depth of solution: 0.1mm

cells/mm3 =         230 x 100        
                  1 x 1 mm2 x 0.01 mm
               = 230,000/mm3 (µL)
               = 230 x 103/L
 
REFERENCE RANGES
• 150,000 - 450,000/µL
• 150 - 450 x 109/L
 
REFERENCES
1. Brown, B.A., Haemotology, Principles and Procedures, Lea & Febiger, U.S.A., 1976.
2. Hoffbrand, A. V. and Pettit, 1. E., Essential Haemotology, Blackwell Scientific Publication, U.S.A., 1980.
3. Kassirsky, I. and Alexeev, G., Clinical Haemotology, Mir Publishers, U.S.S.R., 1972.
4. Widmann, F.K., Clinical interpretation of Laboratory tests, F.A. Davis Company, U.S.A., 1985.
5. Kirk, C.J.C. et al, Basic Medical Laboratory Technology, Pitman Book Ltd., U.K. 1982.
6. Green, J.H., An Introduction to human Physiology, Oxford University Press, U.K., 1980.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme that helps regulate blood pressure. An increased blood level of ACE is sometimes found in sarcoidosis, a systemic disorder of unknown cause that often affects the lungs but may also affect many other body organs, including the eyes, skin, nerves, liver, and heart., This test measures the amount of ACE in the blood.
 
A classic feature of sarcoidosis is the development of granulomas, small tumor-like masses of immune and inflammatory cells and fibrous tissue that form nodules under the skin and in organs throughout the body. Granulomas change the structure of the tissues around them and, in sufficient numbers, they can cause damage and inflammation and may interfere with normal functions. The cells found at the outside borders of granulomas can produce increased amounts of ACE. The level of ACE in the blood may increase when sarcoidosis-related granulomas develop.
 
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) test is primarily ordered to help diagnose and monitor sarcoidosis. It is often ordered as part of an investigation into the cause of a group of troubling chronic symptoms that are possibly due to sarcoidosis.
 
Sarcoidosis is a disorder in which small nodules called granulomas may form under the skin and in organs throughout the body. The cells surrounding granulomas can produce increased amounts of ACE and the blood level of ACE may increase when sarcoidosis is present.
 
The blood level of ACE tends to rise and fall with disease activity. If ACE is initially elevated in someone with sarcoidosis, the ACE test can be used to monitor the course of the disease and the effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment.
 
A health practitioner may order ACE along with other tests, such as AFB tests that detect mycobacterial infections or fungal tests. This may help to differentiate between sarcoidosis and another condition causing granuloma formation.
 
When is it ordered?
An ACE test is ordered when someone has signs or symptoms that may be due to sarcoidosis, such as:
  • Granulomas
  • A chronic cough or shortness of breath
  • Red, watery eyes
  • Joint pain
 
This is especially true if the person is between 20 and 40 years of age, when sarcoidosis is most frequently seen.
 
When someone has been diagnosed with sarcoidosis and initial ACE levels were elevated, a health practitioner may order ACE testing at regular intervals to monitor the change in ACE over time as a reflection of disease activity.
 
What does the test result mean?
An increased ACE level in a person who has clinical findings consistent with sarcoidosis means that it is likely that the person has an active case of sarcoidosis, if other diseases have been ruled out. ACE will be elevated in 50% to 80% of those with active sarcoidosis. The finding of a high ACE level helps to confirm the diagnosis.
 
A normal ACE level cannot be used to rule out sarcoidosis because sarcoidosis can be present without an elevated ACE level. Findings of normal ACE levels in sarcoidosis may occur if the disease is in an inactive state, may reflect early detection of sarcoidosis, or may be a case where the cells do not produce increased amounts of ACE. ACE levels are also less likely to be elevated in cases of chronic sarcoidosis.
 
When monitoring the course of the disease, an ACE level that is initially high and then decreases over time usually indicates spontaneous or therapy-induced remission and a favorable prognosis. A rising level of ACE, on the other hand, may indicate either an early disease process that is progressing or disease activity that is not responding to therapy.

Total leukocyte count (TLC) refers to the number of white blood cells in 1 μl of blood (or in 1 liter of blood if the result is expressed in SI units). There are two methods for estimation of TLC:

  • Manual or microscopic method
  • Automated method

A differential leukocyte count should always be performed along with TLC to obtain the absolute cell counts.

The purpose of carrying out TLC is to detect increase or decrease in the total number of white cells in blood, i.e. leukocytosis or leukopenia respectively. TLC is carried out in the investigation of infections, any fever, hematologic disorders, malignancy, and for follow-up of chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

MANUAL METHOD

Principle

A sample of whole blood is mixed with a diluent, which lyses red cells and stains nuclei of white blood cells. White blood cells are counted in a hemocytometer counting chamber under the microscope and the result is expressed as total number of leukocytes per μl of blood or per liter of blood.

Equipment

(1) Hemocytometer or counting chamber with coverglass: The recommended hemocytometer is one with improved Neubauer rulings and metalized surface. There are two ruled areas on the surface of the chamber. Each ruled area is 3 mm × 3 mm in size and consists of 9 large squares with each large square measuring 1 mm × 1 mm. When the special thick coverglass is placed over the ruled area, the volume occupied by the diluted blood in each large square is 0.1 ml. In the improved Neubauer chamber, the central large square is divided into 25 squares, each of which is further subdivided into 16 small squares. A group of 16 small squares is separated by closely ruled triple lines. Metalized surface makes background rulings and cells easily visible. The 4 large corner squares are used for counting leukocytes, while the central large square is used for counting platelets and red blood cells. Only special coverglass, which is intended for use with hemocytometer, should be used. It should be thick and optically flat. When the special coverglass is placed on the surface of the chamber, a volumetric chamber with constant depth and volume throughout its entire area is formed. Ordinary coverslips should never be employed since they do not provide constant depth to the underlying chamber due to bowing.

When the special cover glass is placed over the ruled area of the chamber and pressed, Newton’s rings (colored refraction or rainbow colored rings) appear between the two glass surfaces; their formation indicates the correct placement of the cover glass.

(2) Pipette calibrated to deliver 20 μl (0.02 ml, 20 cmm): WBC bulb pipettes, which have a bulb for dilution and mixing (Thoma pipettes) are no longer recommended. This is because blood and diluting fluid cannot be mixed adequately inside the bulb of the pipette. Bulb pipettes are also difficult to calibrate, costly, and charging of counting chamber is difficult. Tips of pipettes often chip easily and unnecessarily small volume of blood needs to be used.

  1. Graduated pipette, 1 ml.
  2. Pasteur pipett
  3. Test tube (75 × 12 mm).

Reagent

WBC diluting fluid (Turk’s fluid) consists of a weak acid solution (which hemolyzes red cells) and gentian violet (which stains leucocyte nuclei deep violet). Diluting fluid also suspends and disperses the cells and facilitates counting. Its composition is as follows:

  • Acetic acid, glacial 2 ml
  • Gentian violet, 1% aqueous 1 ml
  • Distilled water to make 100 ml

Specimen

EDTA anticoagulated venous blood or blood obtained by skin puncture is used. (Heparin should not be used since it causes leukocyte clumping). While collecting capillary blood from the finger, excess squeezing should be avoided so as not to dilute blood with tissue fluid.

Method

(1) Dilution of blood: Take 0.38 ml of diluting fluid in a test tube. To this, add exactly 20 μl of blood and mix. This produces 1:20 dilution. Alternatively, 0.1 ml of blood can be added to 1.9 ml of diluting fluid to get the same dilution.

(2) Charging the counting chamber: Place a coverglass over the hemocytometer. Draw some of the diluted blood in a Pasteur pipette. Holding the Pasteur pipette at an angle of 45° and placing its tip between the coverglass and the chamber, fill one of the ruled areas of the hemocytometer with the sample. The sample should cover the entire ruled area, should not contain air bubbles, and should not flow into the side channels. Allow 2 minutes for settling of cells.

(3) Counting the cells: Place the charged hemocytometer on the microscope stage. With the illumination reduced to give sufficient contrast, bring the rulings and the white cells under the focus of the low power objective (× 10). White cells appear as small black dots. Count the number of white cells in four large corner squares. (To reduce the error of distribution, counting of cells in all the nine squares is preferable). To correct for the random distribution of cells lying on the margins of the square, cells which are touching the left-hand lines or upper lines of the square are included in the count, while cells touching the lower and right margins are excluded.

(a) Calculation of TLC:

TLC/μl = Nw x Cd x Cv
                    NLS
          = Nw x 20 x  10
                      4
          = Nw x 50
                    

Where Nw is the number of WBCs counted, Cd is the correction of dilution, Cv is the correction of volume and NLS is the number of large squares counted.

(b) TLC/L = Number of WBCs counted × 50 × 106 (106 is the correction factor to convert count in 1 μl to count in 1 liter). Example: If 200 WBCs are counted in 4 large squares, TLC/μl will be 10,000/μl and TLC/liter will be 10.0 × 109/liter.

If TLC is more than 50,000/ml, then dilution of blood should be increased to 1:40 to increase the accuracy of the result.

If TLC is less than 2,000/ml then lesser dilution should be used.


Expression of TLC: Conventionally, TLC is expressed as cells/μl or cells/cmm or cells/mm3. In SI units, TLC is expressed as cells × 109/liter. Conversion factors for conventional to SI units is 0.001 and SI to conventional units is 1000.

Correction of TLC for nucleated red cells: The diluting fluid does not lyse nucleated red cells or erythroblasts. Therefore, they are counted as leukocytes in hemocytometer. If erythroblasts are markedly increased in the blood sample, overestimation of TLC can occur. To avoid this if erythroblasts are greater than 10 per 100 leukocytes as seen on blood film, TLC should be corrected for nucleated red cells by the following formula:

CTLC =    TLC x 100 
             NRBC + 100

Where CTLC is the Corrected TLC/μl, TLC is the Total Leukocyte Count and NRBC is the Nucleated RBCs per 100 WBCs.

REFERENCE RANGES

  • Adults 4000-11,000/μl
  • At birth 10,000-26000/μl
  • 1 year 6,000-16,000/μl
  • 6-12 year 5,000-13,000/μl
  • Pregnancy up to 15,000/μl

CRITICAL VALUES

  • TLC < 2000/μl or > 50000/μl
Description: Biomedical scientists are the foundation of modern healthcare, from cancer screening to diagnosing HIV, from blood transfusion for surgery to food poisoning and infection control. Without biomedical scientists, the diagnosis of disease, the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment, and research into the causes and cures of disease would not be possible. The Fundamentals of Biomedical Science series is written to reflect the challenges of practicing biomedical science today. It draws together essential basic science with insights into laboratory practice to show how an understanding of the biology of disease is coupled to the analytical approaches that lead to diagnosis. Assuming only a minimum of prior knowledge, the series reviews the full range of disciplines to which a Biomedical Scientist may be exposed - from microbiology to cytopathology to transfusion science. Alongside volumes exploring specific biomedical themes and related laboratory diagnosis, an overarching Biomedical Science Practice volume gives a grounding in the professional and experimental skills with which any Biomedical Scientist must be equipped.

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  • File Name Cytopathology (Fundamentals of Biomedical Science), 1st Ed. 2011
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2011
  • Editor(s) Behdad Shambayati
  • ISBN-10 019953392X
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  • Publisher OUP; 1st Edition (Feb 17, 2011)
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Description: This revised fifth edition is an excellent pathology review for students preparing for the USMLE Step 1 and course examinations. Written in the popular Board Review Series outline format, this text covers general and basic pathology, major concepts of disease processes, and systemic pathology that surveys the principal disorders of each organ system through concise descriptions and full-color illustrations. USMLE-style questions at the end of each chapter emphasize board-relevant information and allow for self-testing to confirm strengths and uncover areas of weakness. Plus, the comprehensive exam at the end of the book is a great prep tool for the actual exam!

You will also discover:
- Full-color design, illustrations, and tables summarize information for convenient review
- Over 450 USMLE-style questions, answers, and rationales both electronically and in print to reinforce your pathology review 
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- A FREE companion website with access to the E-book, image bank, and an interactive question bank featuring all the questions from the book for engaging, effective test preparation

Additional Info

  • File Name BRS Pathology, 5th Ed. 2013
  • Edition 5th
  • Year 2013
  • Author(s) Arthur S. Schneider MD, Philip A. Szanto MD
  • ISBN-10 1451115873
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  • Publisher LWW; 5th Edition (Aug 7, 2013)
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Description: The most up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative pharmacology text in health medicine
 
Enhanced by more than three hundred illustrations -- many in full color
 
Organized to reflect the syllabi in many pharmacology courses and in integrated curricula, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 12e covers the important concepts students need to know about the science of pharmacology and its application to clinical practice. Selection of the subject matter and order of its presentation are based on the authors’ many years experience in teaching this material to thousands of medical, pharmacy, dental, podiatry, nursing, and other health science students.
 
To be as clinically relevant as possible, the book includes sections that specifically address the clinical choice and use of drugs in patients and the monitoring of their effects, and case studies that introduce clinical problems in many chapters. Presented in full color and enhanced by more than three hundred illustrations, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology features numerous summary tables and diagrams that encapsulate important information.
 
Coverage that spans every aspect of medical pharmacology:
 
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  • Endocrine drugs
  • Chemotherapeutic and immunologic drugs
  • Toxicology
  • Special subjects (perinatal, geriatric, and dermatologic pharmacology)
  • Botanical and "food supplements," and over-the-counter medications
  • Prescribing
 
Also in this edition:
 
  • Drug Summary Tables conclude most chapters, providing a concise summary of the most important drugs
  • General concepts relating to newly discovered receptors, receptor mechanisms, and drug transporters
  • Descriptions of important new drugs, including monoclonal antibodies

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  • File Name Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 12th Edition
  • Edition 12th
  • Year 2011
  • Author(s) Bertram Katzung, Susan Masters, Anthony Trevor
  • ISBN-10 0071764011
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  • Publisher McGraw-Hill Medical; 12th edition (January 3, 2012)
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Description: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is one of the most widespread analytical and preparative scale separation techniques used for both scientific investigations and industrial and biomedical analysis. Now in its second edition, this revised and updated version of the Handbook of HPLC examines the new advances made in this field since the publication of the benchmark first edition twelve years ago. It reports detailed information on fundamental and practical aspects of HPLC related to conventional format and sophisticated novel approaches which have been developed to address a variety of separation problems in different fields.

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  • File Name Handbook of HPLC, 2011
  • Edition 2nd
  • Year 2011
  • Author(s) Danilo Corradini
  • ASIN B01A1NOKXS
  • Publisher CRC Press; 2 edition (2010-07-14) (1656)
  • Size 10.7 MB
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Description: Forensic Pathology: Principles and Practice is an extensively illustrated reference book that contains more than 1800 color photographs accompanied by well-considered text that thoroughly explains representative topics, and also provides abundant, up-to-date references for further reading. This well-written volume uses a case-oriented format to address, explain and guide the reader through the varied topics encountered by forensic pathologists. It will benefit not only the experienced forensic pathologist, but also the hospital pathologist who occasionally performs medicolegal autopsies. Doctors in training and those law enforcement officials investigating the broad spectrum of sudden, unexpected and violent deaths that may fall within the jurisdiction of medicolegal death investigators will also find this an invaluable resource.
  • Large, colorful photographs which beautifully illustrate the concepts outlined in the text.
  • Sample descriptions of pathological lesions which serve to aid pathologists in reporting their findings to law enforcement agencies, attorneys, and others involved in investigations of sudden death.
  • Do and Don't' sections at the end of each chapter which provide guidance for handling the types of cases examined within preceding sections.

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  • File Name Forensic Pathology Principles and Practice, 1st Edition - 2005
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2005
  • Author(s) David Dolinak, Evan Matshes, Emma O. Lew
  • ISBN-10 0122199510
  • ISBN-13 978-0122199516
  • Size 71 MB
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Description: Forensic Pathology for Police, Death Investigators, Attorneys, and Forensic Scientists is a forensic pathology book specifically written for professionals who interact with forensic pathologists. The book includes sections that address various general topics which are not normally present in the typical forensic pathology text, such as descriptions of medical, pathology and forensic pathology training, basic anatomy and physiology, an overview of other forensic science disciplines, and autopsy performance. Forensic Pathology for Police, Death Investigators, Attorneys, and Forensic Scientists also covers classic topics in forensic pathology, including death investigation, death certification, postmortem changes, and the entire range of case types, ranging from natural deaths to drug-related deaths to various types of violent death. The text is written in easy-to-understand language, and is complemented by hundreds of high-quality photographs. As an added bonus, a CD containing color versions of all of the photographs shown in the text, as well as hundreds of additional color photographs, is included.

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  • File Name Forensic Pathology for Police Death Investigators Attorneys and Forensic Scientists 2010
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2010
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  • ASIN B01K0RBYA2
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Description: Worldwide, breast cancer is by far the most common cancer amongst women, with an incidence rate more than twice that of colorectal cancer and cervical cancer and about three times that of lung cancer. Whilst screening programmes have improved detection, this disease still places a very high burden on healthcare services worldwide. Over the last two decades, improved public awareness, the implementation of population screening by mammography, and the development of new technology for diagnosis have transformed the care of patients with breast cancer. In this volume, recognised experts discuss key current issues in the diagnosis and management of breast disease. The development and application of new diagnostic techniques is described as well as the use of sophisticated drugs for more effective treatment. Complex contentious topics including risk factors, borderline lesions, professional performance and quality assurance are thoroughly explored by an expert multidisciplinary team.

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  • File Name Breast Cancer - Contemporary Issues in Cancer Imaging
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2010-04-12
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  • Publisher Cambridge University Press (1850)
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  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Cytopreparation: Principles and Practice by Gary W. Gill fills a long-standing need for an easy-to-use and authoritative manual on the fundamentals of cytopreparation up-to-and- including microscopy, screening, and data analysis. The text describes in phenomenological terms the most common materials and methods of specimen collection through mounting for gyn, non-gyn, and FNA specimens, as well as the underlying mechanistic bases. The author provides his expertise and information that will empower and enable readers to review and improve their laboratories’ cytopreparatory techniques as they apply to the vast majority of specimens. This unique volume provides facts that are not readily available anywhere. Cytopreparation: Principles & Practice is intended for everyone associated with, and involved in, making cytologic preparations that are useful for their intended purpose. It will serve as a valuable reference tool for educators in cytology and histology, cytotechnology and histotechnology students, cytotechnologists, cytopreparatory technicians, cytopathologists, anatomical/clinical pathologists, pathology residents and cytopathology fellows.

Additional Info

  • File Name Cytopreparation Principles Practice 2013
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) Gary W. Gill
  • ASIN B01K0SF1IW
  • Size 5.23 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: p53 has emerged as a key tumor suppressor and important target for novel cancer therapy. This book, written by world-leading p53 researchers including many of those who have shaped the field over the past 25 years, provides unique insights into the progress of the field and the prospects for better cancer diagnosis and therapy in the future.

Additional Info

  • File Name 25 Years of p53 Research - 2007
  • Edition 1st
  • Year 2007
  • Author(s) Pierre Hainaut and Klas G. Wiman
  • ASIN B01FELO9EM
  • Publisher Springer
  • Size 12.6 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk
Description: Black's Medical Dictionary first appeared in 1906. That new century was to see health care in the United Kingdom evolve from a largely personal, paternalistic consultation between doctor and patient, based more on medical tradition than medical science, to a complex, science-based, team-oriented and managed service. The emergence of the informed patient was largely responsible for this change, and publications like this dictionary, the contents of which have during its forty-one editions reflected these changes in medicine, have served as a catalyst.

The forty-first edition of Black's Medical Dictionary provides over 5,000 definitions and descriptions of medical terms and concepts, along with over 100 diagrams and drawings including several pages of color illustrations, and is accompanied by appendixes on important subjects such as the National Health Service (including selected statistics), Health Economics, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Common Medical Tests, and an address list of support and professional organizations. Where relevant, entries contain appropriate cross-references to further information. All material has been checked and updated with new or substantially revised entries. This home compendium is invaluable for all who need an authoritative one-volume medical reference book.

Additional Info

  • File Name Black Medical Dictionary 41st Edition - 2005
  • Edition 41st
  • Year 2005
  • Size 0 MB
  • File Format .pdf
  • Password bioscience.pk