Sycon shows two types of re­production namely.
I. Asexual reproduction
II.Sexual reproduction
I. Asexual Reproduction: Sponges show asexual reproduction by the following methods:
  1. Budding: The body of sycon is highly branched. When the conditions are favorable small projections arise from the basal region of the adult sponge. A small projection grows and develops into a small bud. After some time the bud separates from the body of the parent. When it comes in contact with a substratum it attaches to a substratum and develops into an independent animal.
  2. Regeneration: Sycon shows the power of regeneration to a remarkable extent. By accident the sponge body becomes cut into pieces, each piece develops into a young & complete sponge. This process is called regeneration.
II. Sexual reproduction: Sycon is a hermaphrodite animal. In the same animal both male and female sex cells will develop.
Sperm: An 'archaeocyte enlarges in size and functions as sperm mother cell. This is covered by flat cells. Then the sperm mother 
  • cell undergoes divisions and spermatocytes are formed. They develop into sperms. Each sperm has a tail.
  • Ova: An archaeocyte enlarges and functions as a egg mother cell. This cell gets its food supply from nurse cells. The egg mother cell undergoes two divisions and ovum is formed.
Fertilization: Along with incurrent water sperms enter the body of a sponge and unite with ovum Zygote is formed;.
Cleavage: The zygote undergoes holoblastic unequal cleavage. The blastula is called Stomoblastula.
Stomoblastula shows micromeres with flagella which face the blastocoel. The large cells remain undivided for a long time. In the middle of this region of large cells a mouth opening is formed This stage is called stomoblastula by Tuzet'.This stomoblastula undergoes an inversion through the mouth and Amphiblastula is formed.
Amphiblastula larva sponge reproduction thumb9
Amphiblastula larva: Amphiblastula is the larva of sycon. It is oval in shape. It shows small micromeres with flagella on one side. This other half of the larva shows large macromeres. This larva comes out of the sponge through the osculum. It swims in water for some time with the help of flagella. Then it undergoes metamorphosis.
amphiblastula sponge larvae thumb6
Metamorphosis: The macromeres will over grow the micromeres and thus gastrulation takes place. Flagellated cells become internal. It attaches to a substratum.
porifera sycon sponge reproduction thumb13
The outer layer develops into derma! layer. The inner layer of flagellated cells will develop into gastral layer. Then in between the two layers mesenchyme is developed. Thus a young sponge is developed.
Sycon is a sedentary sponge. It leads an aquatic life The body of sycon shows pores and canals which form a complex canal system. It is called sycon type of canal system. It is useful to draw water current inside the body. These water currents bring in food and oxygen. The body wall of sycon contains outer dermal layer and inner choanoderm. in between these two layer mesenchyme is present. The body wall is folded regularly and develop a regular canal system.
1) Ostia: The body wall is folded. In between two folds an incurrent canal is present. The opening of incurrent canal shows a pore membrane. This will show one or two ostia, through which water enters into the incurrent canals. The ostium is surrounded by myocytes. These amoebocytes will work as sphincters. They can close these openings or open them to regulate the inflow of water.
2) Incurrent canals: In between two folds of the body wall an incurrent canal is present. These canals end blindly towards inside. This is lined inside by pinacocytes. These are flat cells and are contractile.
3) Prosopyles: The incurrent canal opens into the radial canal through prosopyles'.
4) Radial canals: In between two incurrent canals a radial canal is present. It ends blindly to the exterior. It leads into excurrent canal internally. Radial canal is lined with choanocytes or flagellated cells. Hence these chambers are called flagellated chambers.
5) Apopyle: Radial canal opens into excurrent canal through an opening called apopyle. The apopyle is also surrounded by Myocytes.
6) Excurrent canal: It is short and wide chamber. It opens into spongocoel. This canal is lined with flat epithelial cell like the spongocoel. The board opening between excurrent canal and sponogocoel is also called internal ostium.
7) Spongocoel: The central part of the cylinder of sycon will show a hollow cavity called spongocoel. it is lined with epithelial cells. At the apex it opens out through osculum.
Because of the action of flagella of choanocytes water is drawn into the body. This is called incurrent water. This brings in food and oxygen. Hence it is called nutritive current. The water that goes out of the osculum is called excurrent water.
Functions of Sponge Canal System:
  1. It brings constant supply of water into the body and helps in respiration.
  2. Water brings with in small food particles which are used by the sponge.
  3. It helps in the process of reproduction.
  4. It helps in the process of discarding waste matter out of the body.
The body of sycon sponge is made by outer dermal layer and inner gastral layer In between these two layers mesenchyme is present. This mesenchyme contains amoebocytes. The scleroblasts secrete spi­cules which from the skeleton of the sycon body.
These spicules are made by calcar­eous substance.
In sycon the spicules are two types.
1) Monaxon spicules
2) Tetraxon spicules
I. Monaxon spicules: These are three types.
a) Longer ones b) Shorter ones c) Club shaped.
These spicules are arranged in definite way in the body of sycon.
1. Long monaxons surround the osculum.
2. The short monaxons lie parallel to the radial canals.
3. The club shaped monaxons are grouped in the derma cortex. The club shaped monaxons are also called oxeates. They will usually project out of the body wall.
If the monaxon are pointed on one end and blunt on the other side they are called monactinal if they are pointed and both the ends they are diactinal ordiactines.
1. 'Style': It is monactinal monaxon spicule This is many types.
a) Tylostyle: One end is broad and the other end is pointed.
b) Acanthostyle: The spicule shows small spines on it.
2. Rhabd: It is diactinal monaxon spicule. This is many types.
a) Strongyles : The ends are round.
b) Tylote: The ends show ridges.
c) Oxea: The ends are pointed.
The analysis of these spicules revealed that they show Mg, Na sulphates in addition to CaCO3
II. Tetraxon spicules : These spicules will show 4 rays. These are present in the gastra! cortex. These tetraxons will loose one of their rays and look like triradiate. Usually the tetraxons and triradiate spicules are present near spongocoel and one ray will project into the spongocoel.
Development of spicules:
In the mesenchyme scleroblasts are present . They give rise to spicules. Calcoblast (scleroblasts) will give calcareous spicule.
Development of Monaxon spicule:
The calcoblast is bi-nucleate. In between the 2 nuclei a central axis is formed, around this axis CaCO, is deposited. The cell absorbs CaCO3 from water.
The spicule will grow. Then the cell is divided into 2. The 2 cells will carry the 2 ends of the spicule in opposite directions. One cell is called founder'. It will maintain shape of the cell(spicule). Second cell is called thickner'. It will maintain thickness of the spicule. Thlis a 'Monaxon' spicule is formed. The 2 calcoblast cells will leave the spicule in Mesenchyme.
Development of Triradiate spicule:
Rarely 3 caicoblast cells wiil come together and each one which  produce a 'Monaxon' spicule. The 3 spicules are united together and a triradiate' spicule is formed. The tetraradiate spicule develops like the triradiate spicule and the fourth ray is developed from the junction of the three.
Functions of the spicules in sycon sponge:
1) They will form a firm frame work of the body and give support to the soft body of the sycon.
2) Spicules give definite shape to the body.
3) They protect the body from disintegration by the wave action of the water.
4) They will keep open the dermal Ostia and canals throughout the life.
Sycon is a sedentary, aquatic or­ganism. The sycon sponge structure is describe in previous topic. It shows diploblastic nature. It has 2 layers,
i) Dermal layer ii) Gastral layer, in between the 2 layers, mesenchyme is present. In the Mesenchyme many amoebocytes are present.
A) DERMAL LAYER: It is the outermost layer of the body. It is also called 'Pinacoderm'. It has 2 kinds of cells, i) Pinacocytes ii) Porocytes.
  1. Pinacocytes : These are flat cells. They are polygonal in shape. They are thin. They are nucleated. All the cells are closely fitted without inter-cellular spaces. This layer give protection to the body. They are highly contractile in nature. They are covering the spongocoel also.
  2. Porocytes : These are cylindrical cells. These cells contain a central pore. In the pinocoderm these cells are present, here and there. Wherever they are present pores are formed.
B) GASTRALLAYER: The inner layer of the body is called 'gastral layer'. It is also called 'choanoderm'. It contains 2 kinds of cells
(i) Choanocytes or collar cells (ii) Epithelial cells.
  1. Choanocytes: These cells are called flagellated cells. These are round and nucleated. They have a long flagellum. At the base of the flagellum a protoplasmic collar is present. This collar will filter the water and catch the micro­organisms and the cell will digest them. Hence these cells are called nutritive cells. Because of the action of their flagella they draw water into the body and pushes it out of the body.
  2. Epithelial cells : in between the choanocytes thin epithelial ceils are present. Because of the epithelial cells the inner gastral layer is complete.
MESENCHYME: In between the pinacoderm and choanoderm mesenchyme is present. In this mesenchyme many amoeba shaped amoebocytes are present. They perform different functions.
1) Myocytes: These amoebocytes are muscular in nature. They show contractions and expansions. They are present around the openings like ostia and osculum. When conditions are unfavourable, these amoebocytes will contract and close the openings.
2) Chromocytes: Amoebocytes contain different pigments and they are coloured. Because of these amoebocytes the sponge will get colour.
3) Thcsocytes: These amoebocytes will store food materials. During starvation period and asexual reproduction they are useful. They are round in shape.
4) Scleroblasts: These amoebocytes will produce spicules. They are three kinds.
    a. Calco blast : They produce calcareous spicules.
    b. Silico blast :They produce silieious spicules.
    c. Spongio blast : They produce spongin fibres.
5) Archaeocyte: These amoebocytes are very important in sexual repro­duction. They give rise to sex cells. Male sex cell is 'sperm'. Female sex cell is 'ovum'.
6) Collencytes: These cells give slender branched pseudopodia. All these branches form a net work. Hence they are called connective tissue cells.
7) Trophocytes: These cells show pseudopodia. They collect food from collar cells and digest it. They distribute the digested food.
8) Gland cells: These cells produce an extension to the dermal layer and secret sticky matter which is useful to the sponge for attachment.  
Thus in the body of the sycon different types of cells are present.
Sycon or Scypha is a typical, small colonial sponge. It belongs to
SYCON-Classification :
Sycon is widely distributed marine sponge. It is sedentary. It is attached to rocks, shells etc. in shallow sea water.
  1. SIZE AND SHAPE OF SYCON SPONGE: The colony contains groups of cylinders, which are branched. Each cylinder grows three inches in length. All the branched cylinders are connected to a base. At the apex of the cylinder an opening is present called oseulum. Around this opening monaxon spicules are arranged in a circle, called oscular fringe.
  2. Colour : The body shows many colours from grey to brown shade.
Sycon is a diplob lastic animal .The body wall is made by two layers
1) Dermal layer and 2) Gastral layer. In between them mesenchyme is present.
A) Dermal layer: This layer contains pinacocytes and porocytes.
  1. Pinacocytes : These are simple flat, polygonal cells. These are highly contractile. They cover the entire outer body surface of the sponge. Pinacocytes covering the outer body surf fromthe dermalepithelium and which cover paragastric cavity and form the gastral epithelium.
  2. Potocytes :These are tubular cells distributed among the pinacocytes. They form the openings on the dermal layer.
B) Gastral layer : it shows choanocytes and epithelial cells.
  • Choanocytes : These are round cells. They show big nucleus A long flagellum s rises from each cell. At base of the flagellum a protoplasmic collar is present. The action of flagellum brings in water. This cell is useful in digestion, respiration and other functions.
C) Mesenchyme : It is present between dermal and gastral layers. It contains amoebocytes. They are many types.
1. Scleroblasts : The amoebocytes secrete skeleton. Scleroblasts are of three types :
     i) Calcoblasts: Scleroblasts that secrete calcareous spicules.
     ii) Silicoblasts: Scleroblasts that secrete silicious spicules
     iii) Spongioblasts: Scleroblasts that secrete spongin fibres.
2. Chromocytes: Amoebocytes with pigment and give colour to the body.
3. Thesocytes: These cells contain reserve food material.
4. Archeocytes: These are big in size. They give rise to sex cells.
5. Myocytes: These are highly contractile cells. They are arranged circularly around the osculum arid other openings. They guard and regulate the apertures.
6. Gland cells: They are attached to the surface of the sponge. They produce slime.
Sycon shows syconoid type of canal system.
a) Dermal ostla : On the body of the sycon dermal ostia are present. They open into incurrent canals
b) In current canals : These are narrow canals. These are covered inside by epethelial cells. They show some openings here and there called prosopyles.
c) Radial canal: The body wall is folded. In these foldings radial canals are present at regular intervals. Prosopyles open into these Radial canals.
In between the two successive radial canals a tubular space, called incurrent canal, is present. Thus radial canals and incurrent canals are arranged alternately.
The radial canals are lined with flagellated cells The flagellar action brings water into the body.
d) Excurrent chambers : The radial canal opens into excurrent chamber through apopyle openings. This chamber is lined by epithelial cells. It opens into spongocoel.
e) Spongocoel : In the centre of the body of sycon a narrow cavity is present called spongocoel. It opens out through osculum.
Course of Water
a) Food: The food of sycon is small minute bacteria, diatoms, protozoans etc. The food particles come into the sponge along with water current.
b) Digestion: The digestion is intracellular. The food particles are usually captured by the choanocytes. Digestion takes place in the choanocytes. The digested food is passed to other cells. The reserve food is stored in the form of fats, glycogen and Droteins in the thesocyte.
The undigested marter sent out through osculum along with excurrent water current.
SYCON SPONGE-SPICULES: In sycon the skeleton contains calcareous spicules. These are of the following types,
  1. Large one rayed needle like Monaxon spicules,
  2. Simple monaxon spicules project from dermal layers on the walls of the radial canals,
  3. Triaxon spicules are present on the walls of spongocoel.
  4. Tetraxon spicules are present on the walls of spongocoel.
RESPIRATION: Respiratory organs are absent in sycon. Respiration is by simple diffusion, between the cells of sponge and water.
EXCRETION: In sycon excretory organs are absent. It is done by diffusion. Some people say the excretory wastes will go out of the body through excurrent water.
REPRODUCTION IN SYCON SPONGE: it is carried on by asexual and sexual methods. Budding is the common asexual method. Sexual reproduction is carried on by the development of sperms and ova. Fertilisation is internal. In the life history Amphiblastula larva is seen .
In 1765 Ellis saw water currents in sponges and considered them as animals. Linnaeus, Lamarck and Cuuier placed the sponges in Zoophyta because they considered sponges are related to anthozoan coelenterates. In 1816 "De Blainville" first stated that sponges do not show relation with coelenterates. But in 19th century sponges are placed with coelenterates only. In 1825 R.E.Gran* studied their morphology and physiology. Only 1836 RE. Grant- proposed the name "porifera" and included the sponges in this group. In 1875 "Huxley" aid in 1884 "Sollas" separated the sponges from Metazoa. Sponges are now recognized as a separated group from Metazoa and named them "Parazoa" af.ar "Sollas".
Sponges will not show tissue grade organisation. They will not show Cilia. The choanoderm will show choanocytes which are useful for bringing water currents into the body The development of canal system, ostia, oscula and spicules makes the sponges look more different from both Protozoa characters  and other Metazoans. Hence they are placed in "Parazoa" group.
Porifera are asymmetrical or symmetrical, multicellular animals. They show cellular grade of organization .They do not show organs. Mouth and specific nervous system are absent They show pores and canals. Through these structures water flows. Sponges show loose aggregation of cells. Tissue formation is absent. The body functions are performed by cells which are more or less independent. They show little cooperation.
Sponges are supported by internal skeleton made by spicules. These spicules are made by calcium carbonate or silicon or spongin.
Sponges are sedentary. Many of them are confined to marine environment. Only spongillidae family members are seen in the fresh water, throughout the world.
They show great powers of regenerations. They show asexual and sexual methods of propagation. The sponges are of various shapes. They may be vase like, branched, globular. Many are brilliant red, orange, yellow, blue violet or black.
Today sponges have a wide variety of uses. Hence full-fledged sponge fishing' industry is producing over one thousand tons of sponges every year.
The fresh water Protozoa animals will face a problem with excess of wafer that enters into the body by Osmosis. The process by which water balance in the body is maintained is called Osmoregulation. In protozoans animal’s osmoregulation is carried on by contractile vacuoles.
In marine protozoans and parasitic protozoans contractile vacuole is absent. In Amoeba osmoregulation is carried out by contractile vacuoles. The contractile vacuole will absorb excess of water in the body Then it reaches the surface and ruptures. This sends out the excess water. Now-a-days "Duncan Wigg, EC. Bovee, T L Jahn' in-1967 worked on the contractile vacuole of Amoeba and came to the conclusion this contractile vacuole has no contraction capacity. It will rupture only to send out the excess water. So they called the contractile vacuole as Water pulsating vesicle'.
In Paramecium two contractile vacuoles are present. They are surrounded by 6 to 10 radiating canals. The two contractile vacuoles will work alternately and perform Osmoregulation.
Maintenance of constant internal environment is called homeostasis. This word is coined by W.B Cannon, in Protozoans homeostasis or Osmoregulation is carried on by contractile vacuoles.
The classification of protozoa based on locomotary organs. In Mastigophora protozoans fiagellum is the locomotory organ. It is long and Thread like. It is useful for locomotion.
Flagella are divided into four types by the arrangement of mastigonemes on the flagellum.
  1. Stichonematic : Mastigonemes are in one row. Ex : Euglena
  2. Pantonematic : Mastigonemes are in two rows.
  3. Acronematic : Flagellum has no mastigonemes, it ends with a fine filament. Ex : Chlatnydomonas.
  4. Simple flagellum : This flagellum will not show mastigonemes or end in fibre. Ex : Dinoflagellates.
In Mastigophora organisms one or two or many flagella are seen. If a flagellum drags the organisms it is called Tracteilum. The flagellum which pushes the organisms forward is called Pulsellum.
T.S. Of Flagellum: The flagellum T.S. shows to central fibers. Around them nine pairs of peripheral fibers are present. These fibers are covered by cytoplasmic sheath. Each flagellum arises 'from a basal granule. The basal granule is also called Blepharoplast. In some cases the blepharoplast is connected with nucleus, by rhizoplast.
The pseudopodia are temporary extensions of any part of the body of a protozoan without pellicle These are found in Sarcodina. Their shape, size and structure vary in different groups. They are 4 types.
a) Lobopodia : These are short and blunt, finger like outgrowths of ectoplasm with on internal core of endoplasm.
Ex : Amoeba, Arcella.
b) Filopodia : The Filopodia are slender, thread-like projections from ectoplasm.
Ex : Euglypha
c) Reticulopodia : These are filamentous structures, of ectoplasm which branch and anastomose to form a complex network.
Ex : Polystomelia
d) Axopodia : The axopodia or actinopodia are long, stiff with pointed distal ends. Each axopodium consists of an enveloping sheath of cytoplasm around a central axial rod.
Ex : Actinophrys
Study about detail description of classification of protozoa based on locomotors organs.
Leuwenhoek first described the protozoan animals under a microscope, he called them animalcules. In 1871 Gold fuss gave the name PROTOZOA The term protozoa means primitive animals. Protozoans are present from Precambrian period to recent times 50.000 species are included in this Phylum.

General Characters:

  1. Protozoa Body all protozoans are unicellular Hyman called them accelular.
  2. Protozoa Symmetry: will show radial symmetry in some organisms, bilateral symmetry in some organisms& some organisms are asymmetrical.
  3. Protozoan’s may live singly or some are colonial.
  4. Protozoa body wall: these animals body covered by cell membrane which contain proteins and lipids.
  5. Some animals may be covered by Pellicle. Some animals covered by shell Ex : Elphidium.
  6. Protozoa Osomo Regulation :In fresh water animals contractile vacuole is present. It is useful for osomo regulation. in marine and parasitic protozoans contractile vacuole is absent.
  7. Food vacuole will work as temporary stomach.
  8. Locomotion Protozoa: protozoa amimals will show locomotory organelles like flagella. pseudopodia.cilia etc.
  9. Nutrition in protozoans is by holozoic, holophytic. saprophytic, coprozoicetc.. Some protozoans are parasites.
  10. Respiration is by diffusion
  11. Excretion is by diffusion
  12. In Protozoa Asexual Reproduction is by binary fission, multiple fission, budding etc.,
  13. In Protozoa Sexual Reproduction is by syngamy. Conjugation etc.
  14. During unfavorable condition - the protozoa’s will develop cyst around themselves.
  15. In some the life cycle is complicated with asexual and sexual phases

One family of superbugs, known as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae or CRE, may be spreading more widely than previously thought, according to a study published Monday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In fact, transmission of these bacteria person-to-person may be occurring without symptoms, say the researchers, from the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Broad Institute.

CRE, which tend to spread in hospitals and long-term care facilities, cause an estimated 9,300 infections and 600 deaths each year in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Description: Wallach’s Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests, now in its Ninth Edition, has been completely revised and updated by a new author team from the Department of Hospital Laboratories, UMass Memorial Medical Center faculty, who are carrying on the tradition of Jacques Wallach’s teachings. This text serves as a practical guide to the use of laboratory tests which aids physicians in using tests more effectively and efficiently by offering test outcomes, possible meanings, differential diagnosis, and summaries of tests available.

The book has been reorganized into 2 sections. The first section is devoted to an alphabetical listing of laboratory tests while stressing the integration of the clinical laboratory in the clinical decision making process. Test sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative infectious disease probabilities are included whenever appropriate. Microbiology tests are listed in a separate chapter. The second section is devoted to disease states. Where appropriate, a patient’s chief complaint and/or physical findings are initially presented with subsequent discussions focused on discrete disease states as they relate to a patient’s chief complaint. Current molecular diagnostic testing, cytogenetics, common pitfalls, test limitations, and identification of appropriate tests for specific clinical presentations are also addressed.

Ninth Edition highlights include:
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Detailed microbiology chapter of infectious diseases

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    Mary A. Williamson

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Description: Bone Marrow Pathology has been extensively revised to reflect the significant advances which have occurred in the application of cytogenetics and in particular, molecular genetics in the diagnosis, classification and understanding of haematological disorders. This comprehensive book not only provides information on all common disease entities, but also covers rare disorders in which bone marrow examination is useful. It is designed as practical resource with ‘Problems and Pitfalls’ sections throughout to aid laboratory diagnosis.

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  • File Name Bone Marrow Pathology - 4th Edition
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    Barbara J. Bain, David M. Clark, Bridget S. Wilkins

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Description: A–Z of Haematology provides an essential ‘quick reference guide’ to definitions covering the entire spectrum of haematology, from blood transfusion and coagulation through to recent advances in molecular haematology.

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  • File Name A – Z of Haematology
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    Barbara J. Bain, Rajeev Gupta

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Description: This book comprises a series of chapters from experts in the field of diagnosis and treatment of myeloid leukemias from all over the world, including America, Europe, Africa and Asia. It contains both reviews on clinical aspects of acute (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemias (CML) and original publications covering specific clinical aspects of these important diseases.

Covering the specifics of myeloid leukemia epidemiology, diagnosis, risk stratification and management by authors from different parts of the world, this book will be of interest to experienced hematologists as well as physicians in training and students from all around the globe. Covering the specifics of myeloid leukemia epidemiology, diagnosis, risk stratification and management by authors from different parts of the world, this book will be of interest to experienced hematologists as well as physicians in training and students from all around the globe.

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  • File Name Myeloid Leukemia – Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment
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Description: This is a 3-in-1 reference book. It gives a complete medical dictionary covering hundreds of terms and expressions relating to myeloproliferative disorder. It also gives extensive lists of bibliographic citations. Finally, it provides information to users on how to update their knowledge using various Internet resources. The book is designed for physicians, medical students preparing for Board examinations, medical researchers, and patients who want to become familiar with research dedicated to myeloproliferative disorder. If your time is valuable, this book is for you. First, you will not waste time searching the Internet while missing a lot of relevant information. Second, the book also saves you time indexing and defining entries. Finally, you will not waste time and money printing hundreds of web pages.

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  • File Name Myeloproliferative Disorder – A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References
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  • Year 2004
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    Icon Health Publications

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