Sahir Roy

Sahir Roy

1. On the right and left sides two ovaries are present. 1. Only left ovary is present. A vestige of right ovary may occur. 1. A pair of ovaries are present on the left and right sides. They are small and compact bodies.
2. Ovaries are irregular bodies situated assymetrically and hanging from the dorsal wall of the body cavity by mesovaria. 2. The single left ovary is attached to anterior lobe of the left kidney by mesovarium. 2. The ovaries lie behind the kidneys and attached to dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity by mesovaria.
3. Right ovaiy is a little anterior to the left one. 3. Right ovary is absent. 3. Right and left ovaries are at the same level.
4. Oviducts are paired. 4. Only left oviduct is developed. A vestige of right oviduct is often seen. 4. Oviducts are paired.
5. Oviducts give striated appearance over greater part of their length. 5. Oviduct doesnot give striated appearance. 5. Striated appearance is absent.
6. Oviducts extend well ahead of ovaries and follow straight course. 6. Oviduct starts'just behind the ovary and follow a convoluted course. 6. Oviducts start just outside the ovaries and follow convoluted course.
7. Oviducal funneb are large and have externally directed ostia with the entire margin. 7. Single Left oviducal funnel is very large and membranous. It has fimbricated margins it lies close to the ovary with it; ostium. 7. Oviducal funneb are small and have internally directed ostia with fimbricated margin.
8. Each oviduct dilates to form an oval shell gland along the ventral surface of the kidney uteri are not demarcated. Oviducts are enlarged into small ovisacs. These are two vaginae. Vaginae open into the urodaeum. 8. The oviduct is divided into anterior oviducal funnel, behind it magnum which is thick walled & secretes albumen. Below the Magnum is isthmus which secretes shell membrane and the succeeding part is the uterus. Uterus is thin walled and secretes calcareous shell and albumen. The posterior most part is the thick walled and mus-cular vagina. 8. The oviducal funel leads distaliy :uio a bng, narrow and convoluted tube - Fallopian tube. Its walls are lined with Ciliated epithelium. The posterior most parts of the two oviducts form uteri. These are widened muscular and»/ascular structures. The paired uteri open into median and highly muscular chamber-vagina. Associated with urethra, the vagina forms the urino-genitaf canal or vestibule.
9. Urodaeum opens outside by a transverse cloacal aperture. 9. Urodaeum opens out by a transverse cloa-cal aperture. 9. Urino - genital canal opens outside by a longitudinal aperture - vulva lying infront of the anus. Vulva has 'clitoris.'
10. There are no special glands associated with female reproductive system. 10. Same as in calotes. 10. Cowper's and perineal glands are associated with female reproductive system.
11. Milk glands are absent. 11. Milk Glands are absent. 11. On the ventral surface of trunk region 4 or 5 pairs of milk glands open through their tears.
12. Fertilization is internal oviparous animal. 12. Same as in calotes. Oviparous animal 12. Same as in calotes and columba. Viviparous animal
1. Testes are white ovoid bodies. 1. Testis white ovoid bodies. 1. Testes are pink, ovoid bodies.
2. Testes lie in the abdominal cavity much ahead of kidneys. Inguinal canal is absent. 2. Testes lie in the abdominal cavity under the anterior parts of kidneys. Inguinal canal is absent. 2. Testes are extra abdominal and lie in the scrotal sacs which are the folds of the skin. They are connected with perivisceral cavity by inguinal canals.
3 Right testis is a little ahead of the left one. 3. Left testis is a little bigger than the right one. 3. Right and left testes are symmetrical.
4. Spermatic cord is not formed. 4. Same as in calotes. 4. A spermatic cord extends from each testis to a little behind the kidney of its side.
5. Each testis is attached to the dorsal body wall by a double fold of peritoneum the mesorchium. 5. Each testis is attached to the kidney of its side by mesorchium. 5. Each testis is attached to the wall of scrotal sac by a short, thick, elastic cord 'gubernaculum'.
6. From the inner end of each testis arises a much convoluted tube-epididymis. 6. Epididymis is absent. 6. Epididymis is present.
7. Caput and cauda epididymis are not found 7. Same as in calotes. 7 Caput epididymis and cauda epi-didymes are the extensions of epididymis infront and behind the testis
8. Epididymis is continued behind as long, narrow, coiled and delicate vas deferens. It passes backwards along the ventral surface of the kidney of its side and joins with the ureter to form urino-genital sinus which opens into the cloaca. 8. The vas deferens arises directly from the inner border of the kidney in the form of a narrow convolutec tube. It runs backwards outside the ureter parallel to it and both open dorsally by separate aperture in urodaeum of the cloaca. 8. The vas deferens passes through the inguinal canal and runs forward and enters into the abdominal cavity. So that a loop around the ureter of its side to open into sac-uterus masculinus' which is present in the dorsal wall of the urinary bladder.
9. Seminal vesicles are absent. 9. Posterior end of each vas deferens enlarges to form seminal vesicle. 9. Seminal vesicles are absent.
10. There are no special glands associated with male genital system. 10. Same as in calotes. 10. There are prostate, couper's and perineal glands are associated with the male genital system.
11. In male a pair of eversible copulatory organs 'hemipenes' lie under the skin behind cloacai aperture 11. Copulatory organs are absent. 11. The copulatory organ in male is in the form of a thick muscular 'Penis'. It is covered by skin loose fold prepuce or foreskin penis is made up of a spongy tissue containing bbod vessels and it is erectile.
Sunday, 12 March 2017 13:08

H. Gobind Khorana - Biographical

Har Gobind Khorana was born of Hindu parents in Raipur, a little village in Punjab, which is now part of eastern Pakistan. The correct date of his birth is not known; that shown in documents is January 9th, 1922. He is the youngest of a family of one daughter and four sons. His father was a «patwari», a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian system of government. Although poor, his father was dedicated to educating his children and they were practically the only literate family in the village inhabited by about 100 people.

Har Gobind Khorana attended D.A.V. High School in Multan (now West Punjab); Ratan Lal, one of his teachers, influenced him greatly during that period. Later, he studied at the Punjab University in Lahore where he obtained an M. Sc. degree. Mahan Singh, a great teacher and accurate experimentalist, was his supervisor.

Khorana lived in India until 1945, when the award of a Government of India Fellowship made it possible for him to go to England and he studied for a Ph. D. degree at the University of Liverpool. Roger J. S. Beer supervised his research, and, in addition, looked after him diligently. It was the introduction of Khorana to Western civilization and culture.

Khorana spent a postdoctoral year (1948-1949) at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule in Zurich with Professor Vladimir Prelog. The association with Professor Prelog molded immeasurably his thought and philosophy towards science, work, and effort.

After a brief period in India in the fall of 1949, Khorana returned to England where he obtained a fellowship to work with Dr. (now Professor) G. W. Kenner and Professor (now Lord) A. R. Todd. He stayed in Cambridge from 1950 till 1952. Again, this stay proved to be of decisive value to Khorana. Interest in both proteins and nucleic acids took root at that time.

A job offer in 1952 from Dr. Gordon M. Shrum of British Columbia (now Chancellor of Simon Fraser University, British Columbia) took him to Vancouver. The British Columbia Research Council offered at that time very little by way of facilities, but there was «all the freedom in the world», to use Dr. Shrum's words, to do what the researcher liked to do. During the following years, with Dr. Shrum's inspiration and encouragement and frequent help and scientific counsel from Dr. Jack Campbell (now Head of the Department of Microbiology at the University of British Columbia), a group began to work in the field of biologically interesting phosphate esters and nucleic acids. Among the many devoted and loyal colleagues of this period, there should, in particular, be mention of Dr. Gordon M. Tener (now a Professor in the Biochemistry Department of the University of British Columbia), who contributed much to the spiritual and intellectual well-being of the group.

In 1960 Khorana moved to the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States. As of the fall of 1970 Khorana has been Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Har Gobind Khorana was married in 1952 to Esther Elizabeth Sibler, who is of Swiss origin. Esther brought a consistent sense of purpose into his life at a time when, after six years' absence from the country of his birth, Khorana felt out of place everywhere and at home nowhere. They have three children: Julia Elizabeth (born May 4th, 1953), Emily Anne (born October 18th, 1954), and Dave Roy (born July 26th, 1958).

A 52-year-old Malaysian man, a 24-year-old sub-Saharan woman, and a 28-year-old Madagascan woman (who was heterozygous for hemoglobin S) were admitted to North Hospital in Marseilles, France. Blood tests using an Advia2120i hematology analyzer (Siemens) showed no or mild anemia (109-150 g/L), normal or high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (339-364 g/L), and borderline or slightly high red cell distribution width (15%-19.2%).

The red blood cell (RBC) volume and hemoglobin concentration cytogram clearly showed a typical distribution of comma-shaped RBCs, with an increased number of hyperchromic RBCs (panel A). Examination of the blood smear revealed anisocytosis and poikilocytosis, without spherocytes but with ovalocytes and macro-ovalocytes, some of them with more than 1 ridge (panel B; original magnification ×100, May-Grünwald Giemsa stain). The eosin-5′-maleimide binding test performed for each patient showed a reduced mean channel fluorescence between 26.2% and 30.9%, confirming an anomaly of the band-3 protein. A heterozygous 9-amino-acid deletion (residues 400 to 408) in band 3 (SLC4A1), which is the most common genetic abnormality in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO), was found in all 3 patients. Most cases of SAO are asymptomatic, so careful examination of a cytogram from the Advia2120i analyzer and close observation of the blood smear can help diagnose SAO.

Scientists at the University of York have harnessed the therapeutic effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules to develop a new antibiotic which could be used to treat the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea.

The infection, which is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has developed a highly drug-resistant strain in recent years with new cases reported in the north of England and Japan.

There are concerns that gonorrhoea, which is the second most common sexually transmitted infection in England, is becoming untreatable.

Almost 35,000 cases were reported in England during 2014, with most cases affecting young men and women under the age of 25. The interdisciplinary team, from the University of York's Departments of Biology and Chemistry, targeted the "engine room" of the bacteria using carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

CO is produced naturally in the body, but there is increasing evidence that carbon monoxide enhances antibiotic action with huge potential for treating bacterial infections.

The scientists found that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is more sensitive to CO-based toxicity than other model bacterial pathogens, and may serve as a viable candidate for antimicrobial therapy using CO-RMs.

The CO molecule works by binding to the bacteria, preventing them from producing energy.

Scientists believe the breakthrough, published in the journal MedChemComm, could pave the way for new treatments.

Professor Ian Fairlamb, from the University's Department of Chemistry, said: "The carbon monoxide molecule targets the engine room, stopping the bacteria from respiring. Gonorrhoea only has one enzyme that needs inhibiting and then it can't respire oxygen and it dies.

"People will be well aware that CO is a toxic molecule but that is at high concentrations. Here we are using very low concentrations which we know the bacteria are sensitive to.

"We are looking at a molecule that can be released in a safe and controlled way to where it is needed."

The team say the next stage is to develop a drug, either in the form of a pill or cream, so that the fundamental research findings can be translated on to future clinical trials.

Professor Fairlamb added: "We think our study is an important breakthrough. It isn't the final drug yet but it is pretty close to it." "People might perceive gonorrhoea as a trivial bacterial infection, but the disease is becoming more dangerous and resistant to antibiotics."

The team worked with Professor James Moir from the University's Department of Biology. He added: "Antimicrobial resistance is a massive global problem which isn't going away. We need to use many different approaches, and the development of new drugs using bioinorganic chemistry is one crucial way we can tackle this problem, to control important bacterial pathogens before the current therapies stop working."

Chalita Suansane is a 21 year old Thailand native currently studying Microbiology at Mahasarakham University. Ever since Suansane was young, she was often curious and eager to learn new things, including a passion to explore living organisms that you cannot see by the eyes. On top of her studies, Suansane volunteers at ‘Baan Home Hug’ which is an orphanage that houses children who have inherited HIV from their parents, children who were abused, and children who have lost their family. If crowned, she would like to raise awareness and advocate for HIV/AIDS. Suansane would also like to let young women know that fulfilling your own passions, having self-respect, and being compassionate to others will make you confidently beautiful in your own way.