Description: This new edition of Handbook of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology: Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland features practical guidance on how to handle common inpatient and outpatient challenges seen in pediatric hematology and oncology. Designed as a rapid reference to the latest diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, the text is short and didactic and supplemented with practical algorithms and case studies throughout. Completely revised and updated, there are brand-new chapters on subjects including bone marrow transplantation, pain management and palliative care. Comprehensive, yet concise, the handbook presents essential guidelines on the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric blood disorders and malignancies, in addition to chemotherapeutic drug information and transfusion protocols. Designed for medical students, residents, and fellows, this user-friendly portable reference is also the perfect companion on the ward for pediatric hematology and oncology nurses.
Description: Wallach’s Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests, now in its Ninth Edition, has been completely revised and updated by a new author team from the Department of Hospital Laboratories, UMass Memorial Medical Center faculty, who are carrying on the tradition of Jacques Wallach’s teachings. This text serves as a practical guide to the use of laboratory tests which aids physicians in using tests more effectively and efficiently by offering test outcomes, possible meanings, differential diagnosis, and summaries of tests available.
The book has been reorganized into 2 sections. The first section is devoted to an alphabetical listing of laboratory tests while stressing the integration of the clinical laboratory in the clinical decision making process. Test sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative infectious disease probabilities are included whenever appropriate. Microbiology tests are listed in a separate chapter. The second section is devoted to disease states. Where appropriate, a patient’s chief complaint and/or physical findings are initially presented with subsequent discussions focused on discrete disease states as they relate to a patient’s chief complaint. Current molecular diagnostic testing, cytogenetics, common pitfalls, test limitations, and identification of appropriate tests for specific clinical presentations are also addressed.
Ninth Edition highlights include:
Detailed listing and description of routine and esoteric tests listed alphabetically, with information on when to order and how to interpret the test results based on evidence-based laboratory medicine.
Information on how to work up patients with specific symptoms and the appropriate lab tests to order
Up-to-date test procedures including molecular diagnostic tests
Detailed microbiology chapter of infectious diseases
Description: Bone Marrow Pathology has been extensively revised to reflect the significant advances which have occurred in the application of cytogenetics and in particular, molecular genetics in the diagnosis, classification and understanding of haematological disorders. This comprehensive book not only provides information on all common disease entities, but also covers rare disorders in which bone marrow examination is useful. It is designed as practical resource with ‘Problems and Pitfalls’ sections throughout to aid laboratory diagnosis.
This fourth edition:
- Incorporates the recommendations of the 2008 WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues
- Covers key diagnostic techniques such as flow cytometric immunophenotyping, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis
- Includes new diagnostic algorithms and summary boxes
- Contains 550 colour illustrations including high-quality digital photomicrographs
- Haematologists and histopathologists will find this book an invaluable desktop reference when performing daily blood and bone marrow investigations.
Description: A–Z of Haematology provides an essential ‘quick reference guide’ to definitions covering the entire spectrum of haematology, from blood transfusion and coagulation through to recent advances in molecular haematology.
It is the indispensable guide for all those practising or studying haematology including research scientists and biomedical scientists working in diagnostic laboratories. Scientists working in cytogenetics and immunophenotyping will also find it a valuable repository of relevant knowledge.
A–Z of Haematology includes:
- Definitions cover the entire spectrum of haematology, from blood transfusion and coagulation through to molecular haematology
- Essential "quick reference guide" for all those practising or studying haematology
- Over 100 figures to explain and clarify difficult concepts
- Inclusion of all CD numbers and oncogenes to be encountered in daily practice
- Appendices of laboratory data and normal values included
Description: This book comprises a series of chapters from experts in the field of diagnosis and treatment of myeloid leukemias from all over the world, including America, Europe, Africa and Asia. It contains both reviews on clinical aspects of acute (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemias (CML) and original publications covering specific clinical aspects of these important diseases.
Covering the specifics of myeloid leukemia epidemiology, diagnosis, risk stratification and management by authors from different parts of the world, this book will be of interest to experienced hematologists as well as physicians in training and students from all around the globe. Covering the specifics of myeloid leukemia epidemiology, diagnosis, risk stratification and management by authors from different parts of the world, this book will be of interest to experienced hematologists as well as physicians in training and students from all around the globe.
Description: This is a 3-in-1 reference book. It gives a complete medical dictionary covering hundreds of terms and expressions relating to myeloproliferative disorder. It also gives extensive lists of bibliographic citations. Finally, it provides information to users on how to update their knowledge using various Internet resources. The book is designed for physicians, medical students preparing for Board examinations, medical researchers, and patients who want to become familiar with research dedicated to myeloproliferative disorder. If your time is valuable, this book is for you. First, you will not waste time searching the Internet while missing a lot of relevant information. Second, the book also saves you time indexing and defining entries. Finally, you will not waste time and money printing hundreds of web pages.
Description: As the study of embryology continues to be integrated with a range of disciplines, Before We Are Born remains the ideal solution for students who need to quickly learn the basics. Fully updated by the world’s foremost embryologists, this medical reference book provides concise guidance on human embryology at every stage of development, utilizing rich illustrations and photographs designed to further explain content.
- Understand all of the latest advances in embryology, including normal and abnormal embryogenesis, causes of birth defects, and the role of genes in human development.
- See how discoveries in molecular biology have affected clinical practice, including the development of sophisticated new techniques such as recumbent DNA technology and stem cell manipulation.
- Prepare for the USMLE Step 1 with clinical case presentations, highlighted in special boxes, which demonstrate how embryology concepts relate to clinical practice.
- Quickly review just the embryology information you need to know, masterfully distilled from the popular book The Developing Human, written by the same author team.
- Understand the complex concepts inherent in embryology with help from streamlined content, didactic illustrations, and clinical photos.
- Test your knowledge with brand-new review questions at the end of each chapter.
- Searchable, portable, shareable, and perpetual, this Student Consult title offers enhanced features that allow you to interact with your content like never before.
- Completely revised new edition of an established textbook.
- Features new chapters and examples from exciting new research in genomics, including the human genome project.
- Excellent new co-author in Richard Twyman, also co-author of the new edition of hugely popular Principles of Gene Manipulation.
- Accompanying web-page to help students deal with this difficult topic at www.blackwellpublishing.com/primrose
Multiple Myeloma: Early Death Common and Preventable
Improved survival among patients with multiple myeloma is one of the most impressive cancer treatment success stories in recent years.
A decade ago, patients survived an average 3 to 4 years following a multiple myeloma (MM) diagnosis, but median survival times have doubled and continue to improve, said multiple myeloma researcher Shaji Kumar, MD, of Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
This is due largely to the introduction of novel biologic therapies and greater use of autologous stem cell transplant. While there is still no cure for the neoplastic plasma-cell disorder, these treatments now routinely prolong initial remission and survival.
Early death remains common
Considered a rapidly fatal disease just a decade ago, MM is now considered more of a chronic condition for many, but not all, patients, Kumar said in a telephone interview.
Early death remains a significant and under-recognized problem in multiple myeloma, especially among patients with serious comorbidities or those who are very old. These patients often do not receive today’s gold-standard treatments, and that is a problem, Kumar said.
“About a quarter of patients will die within the first 2 to 3 years of diagnosis, for a number of reasons,” Kumar said, adding that he believes early mortality among multiple myeloma patients could be reduced by a third or even half if strategies to identify and treat those most at-risk were systematically applied.”
“Do’s and Don’ts” in early treatment
These strategies were outlined by Kumar and colleagues from Mayo Clinic and the University of Alabama at Birmingham in a recent analysis, published ahead of print by the American Journal of Hematology.
“Multiple myeloma is not a rare disease, but it is not commonly seen by oncologists in general practice,” analysis co-author Luciano J. Costa, MD, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham said. “Some may see only 1 or 2 of these patients a year, so we felt it was important to highlight some key strategies for reducing early death rates in this population.”
In a separate population analysis of 30,324 multiple myeloma patients published late in 2014, Kumar, Costa and colleagues found that while early mortality–defined as death within a year of MM diagnosis–has decreased over time, it still occurred in 28.6% of patients diagnosed in the U.S. between 1993 and 2010.
The incidence of early death among patients diagnosed before the age of 65 was 17.6% and incidence among older patients was 35.3%.
Majority of MM patients are age 65+
“About two-thirds of patients are 65 or older when diagnosed, so this at-risk group represents the overwhelming majority of patients,” Costa said. “And most of these older patients are not dying from refractory disease.”
Instead, Costa said he believes many die because they are either not getting optimal therapies or because they are very ill from co-morbid diseases at the time of their diagnoses.
These very ill or elderly patients have typically been excluded from multiple myeloma clinical trials, so there is little to guide physicians treating them.
This is why careful risk stratification and identification of co-morbidities immediately following a MM diagnosis is critical, Kumar noted.
“We need to manage the myeloma in the context of the other things going on with the patient,” he said.
The strategy for managing newly diagnosed MM outlined by Costa, Kumar and colleagues included a series of “do’s” and “don’ts” derived from their experience treating patients with the bone marrow cancer. Their aim was not to present comprehensive recommendations for treatment, but, instead, to focus on strategies designed to avoid early complications and death.
Among the recommended “do’s” and “don’ts”:
Do institute prompt systemic therapy
The researchers’ 2014 analysis revealed that the risk of early death was higher when novel MM drugs were not used as part of treatment.
While physicians may be tempted to focus on supportive care for conditions that accompany MM, such as hypercalcemia, bone lesions, renal failure and anemia, the researchers wrote that these treatments should not replace systemic therapy.
“It is crucial to keep in mind that ultimate symptom control or reversal of complication can only be obtained with systemic treatment, and none of the supportive measures above precludes prompt initiation of systemic therapy,” they wrote.
Do treat hypercalcemia aggressively
Approximately 1 in 5 patients develop hypercalcemia, resulting from increased activation of osteoclasts. The researchers noted that the “prompt and effective management of hypercalcemia is imperative to prevent early mortality in newly diagnosed MM.”
They added that in cases of mild hypercalcemia, aggressive rehydration with normal saline along with corticosteroids should suffice, as long as hydration is carefully monitored to avoid congestive heart failure.
In moderate to severe cases (serum calcium >12 mg/dL), an ECG is recommended to rule out arrhythmias. In addition to hydration and corticosteroids, the researchers recommended anti-bone resorption therapies, and they noted that results from two separate trials in patients with malignancy-related hypercalcemia found zoledronic acid to be superior to pamidronate for normalizing calcium levels.
Drugs that cause hypercalcemia should also be avoided, as well as drugs that can worsen neurological status in the setting of concurrent hypercalcemia, “to allow adequate assessment of neurological status.”
Do avoid and manage infections
Infections are the most common cause of early death in MM patients. One study found that 45% of deaths within 2 months of diagnosis were associated with infections. A population-based study from Sweden showed a 7- to 10-fold increase in bacterial and viral infection risk in MM patients, compared to the general population.
The use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infections in MM remains controversial, and the researchers noted that routine prophylaxis is not advised. They did, however, recommend the use of TMP-SMX to prevent fungal pneumonias in patients treated with 20 mg/d or more of prednisone. They also recommended prophylactic use of acyclovir or valacyclovir for patients receiving proteasome inhibitors (PIs) that disrupt normal T-cell immunity.
“For all patients receiving bortezomib and for that matter even newer PIs such as carfilzomib, we recommend administering antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir 400 mg twice daily or valacyclovir 500 mg once a day,” they wrote.
Do avoid thromboembolic events (VTE)
This risk increases with age, and patients with blood cancers such as MM have an especially high risk for clot-related events. The researchers recommend educating all newly diagnosed patients on the warning signs for the development of VTEs. They also recommend the use of VTE prophylaxis in all newly diagnosis MM patients receiving IMiD-immunomodulator therapies.
“In MM patients who develop a thrombosis upon initiating treatment, it is reasonable to hold their treatment and resume after they are therapeutically anticoagulated,” the researchers wrote. “This level of anticoagulation may be continued for the remainder of the duration of MM-directed therapy as long as the risk of serious bleeding complications is deemed acceptable.”
Remaining “do’s” and “don’ts” recommended in the analysis included:
- Do address comorbidities and manage pain.
- Don’t postpone systemic therapy to address localized lesions.
- Don’t administer prolonged courses of high-dose corticosteroids.
- Don’t change well-tolerated therapy due to perceived suboptimal response if clinical benefit is shown.
- Don’t administer radiation when symptoms can be managed with systemic therapy.
- Don’t administer inferior treatment solely based on advanced age of performance status.
“In recent years we have seen an explosion in the number of available therapies for multiple myeloma, but older, sicker patients may not be getting these treatments,” Costa said. “Since about two-thirds of newly diagnosed patients are age 65 or older, it is important to address the issue of suboptimal treatment in this population.”
By Salynn Boyles
Reviewed by Alan S. Weinstein, MD, FACP, Medical Director (retired), Virtua Fox Chase Cancer Program, Marlton, NJ
Recently, the introduction of newer agents such as bortezomib, lenalidomide, thalidomide, liposomal doxorubicin, etc. has led to a flurry of trials aimed at testing various combinations in order to improve survival. Higher response rates observed with these agents have led to their integration into induction therapies. The role of various new therapies vis a vis transplantation has also been examined. Recent advances in the management of plasmacytomas , renal dysfunction, dentistry as well as mobilization of stem cells in the context of myeloma have also found exclusive mention. Since brevity is the soul of wit our attempt has been to present before the reader a comprehensive yet brief text on this important subject.