Displaying articles by tag: Urology

Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 12 August 2017 21:34

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF BLOOD IN URINE

1. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF URINARY SEDIMENT Definition of microscopic hematuria is presence of 3 or more number of red blood cells per high power field on microscopic examination of urinary sediment in two out of three properly collected samples. A small number of red blood cells in urine of low…

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  • Tests for Detection of Blood in Urine
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Read 10620 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 10 August 2017 18:29

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

The chemical examination is carried out for substances in urine are listed below: Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Hemoglobin Myoglobin Nitrite or leukocyte esterase PROTEINS Normally, kidneys excrete scant amount of protein in urine (up to 150 mg/24 hours). These proteins include proteins from plasma (albumin) and…

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  • Chemical Examination of Urine
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Read 9231 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 09 August 2017 19:34

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILE SALTS IN URINE

Bile salts are salts of four different types of bile acids: cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic. These bile acids combine with glycine or taurine to form complex salts or acids. Bile salts enter the small intestine through the bile and act as detergents to emulsify fat and reduce the surface…

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  • Test for Detection of Bile Salts in Urine
  • Surface Tension Test in Urine
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 16177 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 09 August 2017 07:21

TEST FOR DETECTION OF BILIRUBIN IN URINE

Bilirubin is converted to non-reactive biliverdin on exposure to light (daylight or fluorescent light) and on standing at room temperature. Biliverdin cannot be detected by tests that detect bilirubin. Therefore fresh sample that is kept protected from light is required. Findings associated with bilirubinuria are listed below. Jaundice Urine color:…

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  • Chemical Examination of Urine
  • Test for Detection of Bilirubin in Urine
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 37059 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Monday, 07 August 2017 13:11

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF KETONES IN URINE

The proportion of ketone bodies in urine in ketosis is variable: β-hydroxybutyric acid 78%, acetoacetic acid 20%, and acetone 2%. No method for detection of ketonuria reacts with all the three ketone bodies. Rothera’s nitroprusside method and methods based on it detect acetoacetic acid and acetone (the test is 10-20…

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  • Chemical Examination of Urine
  • Test for Detection of Ketones in Urine
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 68037 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Monday, 07 August 2017 08:36

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF PROTEINURIA

1. HEAT AND ACETIC ACID TEST (BOILING TEST)   This test is based on the principle that proteins get precipitated when boiled in an acidic solution.   Method   Urine should be clear; if not, filter or use supernatant from a centrifuged sample.   Urine should be just acidic (check…

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  • Tests for Detection of Protein in Urine
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 17899 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 05 August 2017 18:28

TESTS FOR DETECTION OF GLUCOSE IN URINE

1. COPPER REDUCTION METHODS A. Benedict’s qualitative test: When urine is boiled in Benedict’s qualitative solution, blue alkaline copper sulphate is reduced to red-brown cuprous oxide if a reducing agent is present (Figure 820.1). The extent of reduction depends on the concentration of the reducing substance. This test, however, is…

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  • Tests for Detection of Glucose in Urine
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 15521 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 05 August 2017 12:22

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF URINE

The parameters to be examined on physical examination of urine are listed below. Volume Color Appearance Odor Specific Gravity pH VOLUME Volume of only the 24-hr specimen of urine needs to be measured and reported. The average 24-hr urinary output in adults is 600-2000 ml. The volume varies according to…

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Read 33819 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 05 August 2017 10:23

TEST FOR DETECTION OF UROBILINOGEN IN URINE

Fresh urine sample should be used because on standing urobilinogen is converted to urobilin, which cannot be detected by routine tests. A timed (2-hour postprandial) sample can also be used for testing urobilinogen. Methods for detection of increased amounts of urobilinogen in urine are Ehrlich’s aldehyde test and reagent strip…

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  • Test for Detection of Urobilinogen in Urine
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Read 33875 times
Dayyal Dg. in Biochemistry
Monday, 21 November 2016 20:46

Urine strip test — Understanding its limitations

Routine urinalysis is a cost-effective, non-invasive test used as an indicator of health or disease for metabolic and renal disorders, infection, drug abuse, pregnancy, and nutrition. Urine chemistry can be completed in a number of different ways, ranging from manual reading of a visual urine test strip to the use…

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Dayyal Dg. in Biochemistry
Thursday, 28 April 2016 22:04

Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio

The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension) that put them at an increased risk of developing kidney disease. Studies have shown that identifying individuals in the very early stages of kidney disease helps…

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  • Urine Creatinine
Read 2117 times