- 15 Jun 2017
Introduction and controlled animal breeding have been helpful in imporving other animal species like chicken, ducks, sheeps and pigs. Aseel, Chittagong and Ghaugs are some of the Desi breeds of fowls. White leg horn, Rhode island red, Black Minorca are the introduced varieties.
India and the neighboring countries are recognised as the original home of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus). There is evidence that a Aseel or Malay fowl were carried to Europe through the middle east about 2000 years ago and have given rise to the present day European breeds.
Poultry and poultry products are rich source of animal proteins and other nutrients such as fats, vitamins and minerals. Consumption of eggs would pave the way for overcoming protein malnutrition prevalent among children in Pakistan.
The domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) population of our country can be roughly classified into two types:
(a) Indigenous (Desi type)
(b) Exotic (Improved type)
Some of the indigenous breeds like Aseel, karaknath, Ghagus Brahma, Bursa are the best table birds. The Aseel fowls are used in cock-fighting.
The exotic breeds are classified according to their source of origin, into American class, English class, Asiatic class. Mediterranean class and nature of some Standard classes, common breeds and important fowls.
The indigenous breeds are crossed with exotic breeds for improving egg production. Heterosis has been utilised for producing better egg layers and broilers with high nutritive value.
- 14 Jun 2017
In the intensive system of commercial poultry farming, the birds are subjected to various types of diseases. The diseases in poultry are caused by a variety of agents. As such, the diseases are classified as
- Bacterial diseases
- Viral diseases
- Fungal diseases
- Protozoan diseases
- Parasitic diseases
- Nutritional deficiency diseases
1. BACTERIAL DISEASES IN POULTRY
A. Chronic Respiratory Disease
- This is the egg transmitted disease.
- The production of the eggs falls down in layers.
- The symptoms of the disease are sneezing, swollen sinuses, eyes and respiratory distress, reduced body weight, etc.
- Disease could be controlled by dipping of hatching eggs in antibiotic solutions and giving antibiotics such as Tylosin.
B. Fowl Cholera
- This disease is spread by the birds like crows.
- The symptoms of the disease are
(a) Greenish yellow diarrhea
(b) Purplish discoloration of comb and wattles, and
(c) Respiratory trouble, stop feeding.
- Disease could be controlled by treating with sulphonamides and antibiotics.
- The disease is transmitted through water and moist litter.
- Symptoms of the disease are coughing, sneezing, swoollen face, breathing problem, eye lids stick together and the discharge from the eyes and nostrils emit bad smell, reduced feed consumption and low egg production.
- Disease may be controlled by treating the birds with sulphathiazole in water and feed or giving streptomycin intramuscularly.
D. Pullorum Disease in Fowls
- This disease is caused by Salmonella pullorum to young chicken of 5-10 days.
- The fowls themselves are the carriers of this disease.
- The body of young chicken is moist and aggregate in groups.
- Symptoms of the disease are . dullness, and white diarrhoea. Due to this symptom, this disease is called Bacillary white diarrhoea. Breathing problem and high mortality occur in these birds.
- Nitroferan compounds are used to control mortality.
E. Spirochaetosis in Poultry
- This disease is caused by spirochaets.
- The disease is transmitted by the fowl ticks, hence it can be called tick fever.
- Symptoms of the disease are high fever, greenish diarrhoea, pale combs and wattles, increased thirst and paralysis before death.
- The disease may be controlled by killling ticks and giving pencillin for the birds.
2. VIRAL DISEASES IN POULTRY
A. Marek’s Disease
- This is contagious disease.
- The wings and fleck fall down. They do not drink water. Weight of the body reduces. They move away from other fowls.
- Symptoms are paralysis and loss of vision in old birds.
- No treatment is available but vaccination to the young chicks gives protection.
B. Ranikhet Disease
- This is also called New castle disease.
- It is a contagious disease.
- Symptoms are breathing problem, coughing, nasal discharge, greenish diarrhoea and paralysis.
- No specific treatment is available. However, mild doses of vaccine followed by booster doses of strong vaccine reduce the risk of disease.
C. Infectious Bronchitis in Poultry
- This is a contagious disease.
- Symptoms are sneezing, coughing, high mortality in young ones, drop in egg production, thin shell eggs, etc.
- No specific treatment, but mass vaccination of young chicks is effective in preventing the disease.
D. Infectious laryngotrachitis
- This is a contagious disease which affects the older birds.
- The symptoms are:
(a) Marked respiratory problems, swelling of the face
(b) Drop in egg production and
(c) High mortality rate.
- No definite treatment but vaccination controls the disease to some extent.
E. Fowl Fox
- This is a mild disease effecting young chicken and layers.
- The main symptom to identify this disease is the typical wart -like structure, skin or mouth found on the comb.
- Breathing is difficult. It spreads through mosquitoes.
- Vaccination is proved to be effective.
F. Gumboro Disease
- It is infectious and effects younger birds of 4-8 weeks.
- Disease spreads through feed and water.
- Symptoms of the disease are watery diarrhoea, depression stop feeding and young ones shiver.
3. FUNGAL DISEASES IN POULTRY
A. Brooder Pneumonia
- This disease is also named as Aspergillosis. It is caused by a fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus. This disease spreads through litter and feed to the young ones of brooding stage.
- Symptoms of the disease are breathing problem, gasping, inflammed eyes and high mortality.
- No treatment is available.
- This disease is caused by Asperigillus flavus.
- It spreads through contaminated litter and feed.
- The symptoms are variable. Fall of immunity and are liable to be afected with other diseases. The egg laying capacity falls down and the fowls are destroyed.
- It may be prevented by avoiding moisture, contaminated teed and litter.
4. PROTOZOAN DISEASE IN POULTRY
- The protozoan parasite, Elmeria causes coccidiasis in fowls.
- It spreads mostly to young ones through litter and water.
- The symptoms are: depression, droopiness, ruffled feathers, young ones agregate in flocks, take less food and water, and bloody diarrhoea. Mortality in these birds is severe.
- This can be treated through water medication. Nitrofurazone and other medicines are often used.
5. PARASITIC DISEASES IN POULTRY
The diseases are caused either due to ecto parasites or endo parasites.
- Ectoparasites Ticks, mites, lice and fleas are the common ectoparasites. They cause generally severe irritation by biting or sucking.
They can be prevented by using insecticide like DDT.
- Endo parasites Helminths like nematodes (round worms) cestodes (tape worms) and trematodes (flukes) are the common endo parasites. The symptoms caused by these organisms vary depending on the parasite. For treatment, the drugs like carbontetrachloride, turpentine are used.
6. NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY DISEASES
These diseases are caused by the dificiency ot nutrients such as vitamins and minerals in the feed. For example the deficiency of vitamin E causes a disease called “Encephalomalacia” in poultry. The nutritional deficiency diseases are due to intensive method of poultry farming. They can be rectified by treating the poultry with the balanced feed.
- 14 Jun 2017
The poultry house requires certain features for the better farming of poultry. They are:
- The poultry houses or farms are to be located in non-residential areas so that the poultry is away from noise, dust, etc.
- The farm should be constructed in such a way that it maintains good environmental conditions.
- The farm should be elevated from the ground. Due to this, water may not get into the farm during rainy season.
- The poultry farms are to be constructed in east to west direction along their length. As a result, good sun-shine is available.
- The farm is to be located in a place where transport facilities are available. Water, electricity, feed and equipment are to be within the reach of the farm.
- The farm is to be located near the consumer areas.
- The poultry housing also requires proper temperature and light. At 30° C, the chicken can lay eggs well. Electric bulbs should be arranged at a height of 7ff. in poultry farms to provide warmness. These lights are to be switched on during first seven weeks. A relative humidity of 50-60% is ideal for poultry.
- The sheds are to be ventilated properly. Proper ventilation helps in providing sufficient oxygen for birds and removes harmful gases such as ammonia and carbon dioxide. It also removes moisture in the house and helps in keeping optimum temperatures. To facilitate ventilation, the farm house is to be constructed in such a way that it should have an open front, adjustable windows or cloth covered frames and ventilation at ridge level.
- The flooring of poultry house is to be constructed either with cement or napa slabs. Its roof is to be constructed either with palmyra leaves or cement sheets.
- The chicken in a poultry farm are to be fed with sufficient food and water. Food troughs and water troughs are to be arranged depending on the size of poultry farm. The egg laying pots are also to be established in poultry sheds. One food trough is to be kept for every 20 fowls. The food troughs should not be filled completely with food material. The water given to fowls should be always clean and sufficient.
There are two important housing systems in poultry farms. They are
- Deep Litter System
- Cage System
1. Deep Litter Poultry System
This is the conventional housing system of poultry farms practiced since long back. The floor in the poultry farm is tube covered with a layer of saw dust, paddy husk or straw. This layer is about 4 inches in thickness in summer, while in other seasons 7 inches thick layer is used on the floor. This layer of saw dust, paddy husk or straw which covers the floor of the poultry farm is called litter. The litter should be always in dry condition. The droppings of birds produce ammonia. In wet condition, more ammonia in the litter may cause diseases. Hence, it should be mixed periodically with lime to reduce the percentage of ammonia in the litter. Further the litter should be changed once in a year. Growing chicken on floor covered by litter is said to be the Deep litter system (deep litter) or loose housing system.
The dimensions of the poultry house depend on the number of chicks to be accommodated. For example, 125 chicks require a space of about 400 square feet. A chick normally requires 2.25 square feet. It should be remembered that more than 250 chicks should not be accommodated in a poultry house. A distance of 40 feet is to be maintained in between two poultry houses or sheds.
2. Cage System in Poultry
Of late, many farmers are growing chicks by using cage system. In this system, the birds are grown in cages made of iron mesh. For growing about 25 fowls a cage measuring is 36” x 48” is used. Lesser dimension cages are used for growing small flocks. The cages are arranged in 2 or 3 tiers in poultry houses. Feeding, watering and other facilities are given to the chicken introduced in these cages.
ADVANTAGES OF CAGE METHOD IN POULTRY
- In this method, there is no wastage of space and food.
- Chicks involved in cannibalism may be easily identified and removed. Cannibalism in poultry is referred to as one bird pecking at the other bird.
- The diseased birds can easily be separated.
- Less labor is involved in this method.
- Collection of eggs is an easy process.
- Mortality rate is less in this system.
DISADVANTAGES OF CAGE SYSTEM IN POULTRY
- The cracked eggs are common.
- It is difficult to clean the individual cages and to dispose the manure.
- The food may not be distributed accurately depending on the consumption of the birds in the cage.
- The birds are frequently subjected to a disease called cage layer fatigue. The bird lies on its side giving an impression that it is affected with paralysis. Hence, this is referred to as cage paralysis or cage layer fatigue.
- Fatty liver syndrome is common in cage system. It is characterised by
(a) a gradual drop in egg production (40% - 10%),
(b) fatty, enlarged, tan colored liver is noticeable, and
(c) birds become fatty.
In cage culture certain precautions are to be followed. They are:
- In summer, water is to be sprinkled on cages. This is due to the fact that cage poultry needs protection from excessive heat in severe summer.
- The chicks should be subjected to dubbing and debeaking. As a result of debeaking, the chicken may not involve in cannibalism and can easily procure the soft food without waste.
Depending on size and type of poultry farm, various types of equipment are to be used in poultry farms. The number and size of the equip mental sovary. Important poultry house equipment includes Perches, Feed hoppers, Watering devices, De beakers, Chick guards, Laying nests, Brooding hovers etc.
- 13 Jun 2017
LAYERS – BROILERS IN POULTRY
Generally, two types of chicken are grown in poultry farming. They are layers and broilers. The layers are grown only to lay eggs, whereas the broilers are grown for flesh. More or less, both layers and broilers require similar type of equipment and facilities.
The growth and economy of any poultry farm depends totally on the type of breeds and the management efficiencies. A variety of high yielding layers and broilers are available. These varieties are produced by the process of hybridization. The baby chicks of high quality in layers and broilers are produced by hatcheries. For poultry farming, the new born chicks are to be obtained. These one day old chicks are to be subjected for brooding. Brooding is the care and management exerted in the first few weeks after hatching (40 to 60 days). The artificial brooding is employed for this purpose. The artificial brooding is the method of handling chicks without the aid of mother hen. In this process, the farm houses and cages should be made ready for the baby chicks. The surroundings of the house and the equipment should be kept clean by using insecticides.
LAYERS - POULTRY FARMING
The newly born chicks are to be kept in brooders or brooding hovers. Brooders have 10 x 12 feet or 12 x 12 feet dimensions and accommodate 250 young chicks. Brooder generates heat (90° - 95°F) from the bulbs arranged in them. The temperature in the first week is to be maintained t 90-95°F. A temperature of 5° F is to be reduced for every week. The temperature in fourth week is at 75- 85°F. In some instances, infra-red bulbs are also used for brooding. In the absence of electricity, the fuel such as kerosene and gas are used to generate the heat. Temperature should be uniform for brooding purpose. At high temperature, the young chicks move away from the brooder and they get congregated at low temperatures.
An iron or bamboo mesh is normally used to protect the brooder. This mesh is named as chick guard. The chick guard keeps the young chick together in the brooder. Chick guard covers an area of 3 feet around the brooder and it is 2 feet above the ground level. The brooders are kept in brooding hover for five weeks.
The broods are to be fed initially with wheat or corn granules. This food is given in the first 3 days. In the first two weeks the immunity of the birds is very less and effected with diseases like Coccidiasis and Fowl pox. Coccidiasis is treated by giving coccidiostats, Amprosol and cardinal drugs, Fowl pox is treated by giving vaccination.
The layers are to be given a special diet from the third day onwards. This food is named as chick mash. It is constituted by 20% proteins and has a high calorific value. The mash is to be given along with water in the first few weeks. Dry mash can be given subsequently. The mash should be given for every two hours to the young chicks.
Water is to be supplied 3 to 4 times a day. The temperature maintained in the brooders is to be decreased gradually per every week. As a result, only 75° - 80°F temperature persists in brooders. From 9th week onwards, the lights may be reduced in the poultry. For a few days, zero watt bulbs are used to maintain light. The young chicken are subjected to debeaking on 21st day.
The chicks grown for about twenty weeks are called growers. The growers are to be fed with grower mash or grower ration.
The young chicks grown in brooders should belong to the same age group. These chicks in the first few weeks are easily susceptible for fowl pox. Hence, they are to be treated properly.
The chicks aged 14 - 15 weeks usually suffer from the parasites such as round worm and tape worm. They are to be treated with anti-helminthes medicines. As a result of this treatment, the worms in the alimentary canal die and come out along with faeces. This is called deworming. The deworming is to be done for every 5 - 6 weeks.
The young chicks involve in cannibalism. This cannibalism can be prevented by debeaking which could be taken up once again at the age of 17 or 18 weeks.
The chicken at the age of 18 to 22 weeks start egg laying. At this stage, they are given a diet referred to as layer mash. The chicken at this stage are to be transferred into the cages. Four or five chicken may be kept in a cage.
BROILERS - POULTRY FARMING
These are the birds grown for meat purpose. The poultry house nd equipment required to grow broilers are much similar to that of layers. A broiler needs 1 square foot area in the farm house. The young chicks brought from hatcheries are to be kept in brooders. The brooding time in broilers vary with season. In summer, they require only 2 weeks, whereas in winter they need brooding for about one month. After one month chick guards can be removed. During night time sufficient lights should be established.
After one month the male and female are to be separated and reared separately.
The food given to broilers up to 42 days is called broiler starter mash. It contains 25% of proteins. From 7th week onwards, each broiler weighs 1 - 1.5 kgs. and get ready for marketing purpose. The food given to broilers from 7th week onwards is called broiler finish mash. It contains more carbohydrates and less proteins. In broilers the wieght of male or cock is higher than female or hen.
- 13 Jun 2017
INTRODUCTION TO POULTRY
Rearing a variety of birds such as chicks, turkeys and ducks is referred to as poultry. Chicken forms the major poultry farming all over the world.
In Pakistan the poultry sector is playing an important role in bridging the gap between the supply and demand for protein. Commercial poultry farming started in Pakistan in the early 1960s and showed rapid growth over the decades. The early growth of this sector was the result of the promotional policies from the Government and the persistency of the poultry farming community. The Government considered the poultry production chain to be a crucial part of the food processing industry and gave special incentives to this sector, and hence the poultry sector was declared free of sales and income tax as well as exempt from import duties for a number of years. As a result, during the early 1970s, the sector saw 20–30% growth per annum, and continued to grow at a rate of 10–15% in the 1980s. The most important reason for this growth was a vibrant domestic market, due to which poultry meat consumption increased more than 4% per year.
In Pakistan, poultry production is one of the most dynamic and well organised sectors contributing 26.8%, 5.76% and 1.26% respectively to total meat production, agricultural sector and overall GDP. In the last few years, the poultry sector has shown excellent growth and has emerged as a source of employment for more than 1.5 million people (GOP, 2014).
The extraordinary progress of poultry farming in Pakistan is due to the following reasons.
- Poultry requires less investment.
- It generates income in a short span of time.
- It provides work round the year.
- It can be started as a cottage industry.
- It produces good quality of animal proteins. (Nutrient value of egg is 13.3% of proteins; 13.3% of fats; 173 K. cal. of energy; 60 mg. of calcium; 220 mg. of phosphorus and some vitamins, iron efë. About 100 gms. of flesh of chicken consists of 26.0% proteins; 0.6% fats; 109 K. cal. of energy; 25mg. calcium and 245 mg. phosphorus).
- It can be started as a self employment scheme.
- The feed can be better utilised by poultry. As a result, less food consumption and better growth of poultry are realised.
- Poultry is also suitable for mixed farm conditions.
- Marketing facilities for the sale of poultry products are available.
The domestic fowl is allowed to move freely in open places in villages. These birds freely move and lay a few number of eggs. This is the only system normally practiced for growing chicks in villages for a longtime. However, this method is not proved to be economical. As an alternative to this, poultry farming is initiated.
POULTRY FARMING METHODS
Some important aspects are to be followed in poultry farming. They are (1) poultry housing and equipment (2) management of chicks - broilers and layers (3) poultry diseases (4) poultry products, marketing and economics. In poultry farming, the birds may be grown either by the semi intensive system or intensive system.
SEMI – INTENSIVE POULTRY FARMING SYSTEM
This system is adopted where the free space available is limited. A space of 20-30 square yards is to be allowed per each bird of outside run. Some times the birds may be allowed to move onto fresh ground.
POULTRY FARMING - INTENSIVE SYSTEM
In this method, proper care is to be taken to grow the chicken.
The intensive system is the common system employed in poultry farms. In this system, birds are grown freely in houses or cages arranged in tiers. Housing is meant for providing ideal conditions for the chicken so as to give efficient production.
- 13 Jun 2017
Debeaking is a process of cutting one third of upper beak at 15 days age for first time and at 16th week for second time. As a result of debeaking, the chicken may not involve in cannibalism and can easily procure the soft food without waste. Debeaking is taken up by a machine called Debeaker. Two thirds of the beak is removed in V shaped structure.
In Poultry Dubbing is a process in which crown and wattles are trimmed in young chicken. This process is taken up in the first 3 days. Dubbing results in faster growth and production egg increases by two percent.
Cannibalism in poultry is referred to as one bird pecking the other bird. The cannibalism in fowls may be caused because of several reasons:
- May be hereditary
- Rearing of number of fowls in less space
- Since they are not subjected to debeaking
- Supplying more tasteful, energetic and salty food and
- More temperature in the poultry farm.
These reasons can be made set right except the hereditary characters.
The broodiness in fowls is caused due to hormonal influence. The broody fowls do not lay eggs and feed. Such fowls are to be separated and kept in bright light. Broodiness in fowls is treated by giving estrogen injection and nutrient food.
The ejected oviduct through the cloaca of hens fed with fat rich food material is called prolaps. The oviduct ejects outside during egg laying. This condition is also caused due to heavyweight of the birds or laying large sized eggs. The ejected oviduct is not with drawn due to inability of its contraction.
Culling is the process of separating or eliminating sick and nonproductive birds from the poultry. The non-productive birds can be distinguished from the productive birds by the following characters.