Detection of a fake or adulterated urine sample is necessary before going to the further process of urine testing in the laboratory. Urine adulteration causes false-positive and false-negative results. However, most attempts of a fake or adulteration in a urine sample can be detected either by a trained collection site personnel or by a laboratory technician during the testing process.…
The peritoneal cavity is a potential space in the abdomen lined by mesothelial cells and normally containing about 30-50 ml of serous fluid. The fluid is an ultrafiltrate of plasma and its formation is dependent upon hydrostatic pressure, plasma oncotic pressure, and capillary permeability.
It is a clear, colorless fluid formed in the ventricles of the brain mainly by choroid plexus (an interlaced structure or meshwork of tiny small blood vessels in the lateral third and fourth ventricles). It is mainly an ultrafiltrate of plasma.
Waste products excreted from the digestive tract are composed of water (up to 75%), indigestible residue, undigested food, food which is digested but not absorbed, bile, epithelial cells, secretions from the digestive tract, inorganic material, and bacteria. The normal amount of feces in an adult is 100-200 grams per day. Examination of feces is helpful in the investigation of diseases…
Collection of sample This test is performed with the patient's serum. There is no restriction for a fasting sample. The test can be done by a random blood sample the patient. About 3 to 5 ml of blood is collected in a plain test tube, and blood is allowed to clot to get clear serum. In infants, the sample may…
Why is this test performed? This test is performed for the diagnosis and differentiation of jaundice. This test is also done in a patient with hemolytic anemia in adult and newborn. This test is very useful to evaluate liver functions and for the follow-up of a patient with treatment. Collection of sample This test is performed with the patient's serum.…
Why is this test performed? This test is evaluated in different conditions and diseases such as nephrotic syndrome, liver diseases, kidney diseases, in a patient suspected of malnutrition, and patients severe burn. See also: Procedures for the collection of blood for hemotological investigations. Collection of sample For the estimation of serum albumin, patient's serum is needed. A random blood sample…
Why is this test performed? This hormone test is evaluated in different conditions, such as Hyperaldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome and Virilizing syndrome. Lab tests for various adrenal abnormalities Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's disease): This is due to the diseases of the gland. Level of sodium in serum is low. Cortisol level is decreased. Glucose level is decreased. ACTH level is raised.…

TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

Total serum thyroxine includes both free and protein-bound thyroxine and is usually measured by competitive immunoassay. Normal level in adults is 5.0-12.0 μg/dl.   Test for total thyroxine or free thyroxine is usually combined with TSH measurement and together they give the best assessment of thyroid function.   Causes of Increased Total T4   Hyperthyroidism: Elevation of both T4 and…
Among the endocrine disorders, disorders of the thyroid are common and are only next in frequency to diabetes mellitus. They are more common in women than in men. Functional thyroid disorders can be divided into two types depending on the activity of the thyroid gland: hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormones), and hyperthyroidism (excess thyroid hormones).
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