Displaying articles by tag: Pathology Notes

Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 24 November 2018 19:47

Detection of Fake or Adulterate Urine Sample

Detection of a fake or adulterated urine sample is necessary before going to the further process of urine testing in the laboratory. Urine adulteration causes false-positive and false-negative results. However, most attempts of a fake or adulteration in a urine sample can be detected either by a trained collection site…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • How to
  • How to Avoid Adulteration in Employee Drug Testing
  • Detection of Fake Urine
Read 2739 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 01 November 2018 05:32

Examination of Peritoneal Fluid

The peritoneal cavity is a potential space in the abdomen lined by mesothelial cells and normally containing about 30-50 ml of serous fluid. The fluid is an ultrafiltrate of plasma and its formation is dependent upon hydrostatic pressure, plasma oncotic pressure, and capillary permeability.

  • Exudate
  • Dialisis Peritoneal
  • Transudate and Exudate
  • How Does Dialysis Work
  • Ascites Cirrhosis
  • What is Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Microscopic Examination of Peritoneal Fluid
  • Chemical Examination of Peritoneal Fluid
  • Physical Examination of Peritoneal Fluid
  • Explain the Collection and Examination of Peritoneal Fluid
  • Peritoneal Fluid Analysis
  • Peritoneal Fluid Cytology
  • Peritoneal Fluid Removal
  • Peritoneal Fluid Cell Count
  • Peritoneal Fluid Infection
  • Peritoneal Fluid Cancer
  • Peritoneal Fluid Definition
  • Peritoneal Fluid Amylase
  • Peritoneal Fluid Albumin
  • Peritoneal Fluid Differential Count
  • Peritoneal Fluid After Hysterectomy
  • Peritoneal Fluid Gram Stain
  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Clinical Pathology
Read 4962 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Friday, 10 August 2018 19:15 Featured

Examination of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

It is a clear, colorless fluid formed in the ventricles of the brain mainly by choroid plexus (an interlaced structure or meshwork of tiny small blood vessels in the lateral third and fourth ventricles). It is mainly an ultrafiltrate of plasma.

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Examination of CSF
  • Examination of Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Lab Test
  • Lab Test Procedure
  • Chemical Pathology
  • microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals amoebae
  • physical examination of cerebrospinal fluid
  • microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid
  • laboratory examination of cerebrospinal fluid
  • biochemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid
  • cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid
  • microbiological examination of cerebrospinal fluid
  • chemical examination of cerebrospinal fluid
Read 16556 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 05 August 2018 08:51

Stool Examination for Ova and Parasites

Waste products excreted from the digestive tract are composed of water (up to 75%), indigestible residue, undigested food, food which is digested but not absorbed, bile, epithelial cells, secretions from the digestive tract, inorganic material, and bacteria. The normal amount of feces in an adult is 100-200 grams per day.…

  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Article
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Parasitology
  • Lab Test
  • Lab Test Procedure
  • Examination of Stool
  • Stool Examination
  • Examination of Ova in Stool
  • Examination of Parasites in Stool
Read 10247 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 01 August 2018 08:05

Bilirubin: Total, Direct and Indirect Bilirubin (Different Types of Jaundice)

Why is this test performed? This test is performed for the diagnosis and differentiation of jaundice. This test is also done in a patient with hemolytic anemia in adult and newborn. This test is very useful to evaluate liver functions and for the follow-up of a patient with treatment. Collection…

  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Lab Test
  • Lab Test Procedure
  • Liver Function Test
  • Different Types of Jaundice
  • Total Bilirubin
  • Direct Bilirubin
  • Indirect Bilirubin
  • Article
  • How to
Read 11312 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 31 July 2018 07:00

Serum Albumin Test: Purpose, Procedure, and Normal Values

Why is this test performed? This test is evaluated in different conditions and diseases such as nephrotic syndrome, liver diseases, kidney diseases, in a patient suspected of malnutrition, and patients severe burn. See also: Procedures for the collection of blood for hemotological investigations. Collection of sample For the estimation of…

  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Lab Test
  • Lab Test Procedure
Read 3310 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Monday, 30 July 2018 11:10

Adrenal Gland Hormones and Interpretation

Why is this test performed? This hormone test is evaluated in different conditions, such as Hyperaldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome and Virilizing syndrome. Lab tests for various adrenal abnormalities Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's disease): This is due to the diseases of the gland. Level of sodium in serum is low. Cortisol level…

  • Article
  • Adrenal Gland Hormones
  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Clinical Pathology
Read 2044 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 28 September 2017 09:23

TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

Total serum thyroxine includes both free and protein-bound thyroxine and is usually measured by competitive immunoassay. Normal level in adults is 5.0-12.0 μg/dl.   Test for total thyroxine or free thyroxine is usually combined with TSH measurement and together they give the best assessment of thyroid function.   Causes of…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Total Thyroxine T4 Normal Range
  • Total Thyroxine Test
  • Total Thyroxine Vs Free Thyroxine
  • Total Thyroxine Levels
Read 5466 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 27 September 2017 20:34

Disorders of Thyroid Gland: Hypothyroidism & Hyperthyroidism

Among the endocrine disorders, disorders of the thyroid are common and are only next in frequency to diabetes mellitus. They are more common in women than in men. Functional thyroid disorders can be divided into two types depending on the activity of the thyroid gland: hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormones), and…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Thyroid Disorders
  • Thyroid Test
  • Thyroid Symptoms
  • Thyroid Hormone
  • Thyroid Acropachy
  • Thyroid Cancer
Read 6486 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Friday, 22 September 2017 08:37

FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process of oogenesis. The ova are released by the process of ovulation in a cyclical manner at regular intervals. Ovary contains numerous follicles that contain ova in various stages of development. During each menstrual cycle, up…

  • Infertility
  • Infertility in Female
  • Female Infertility
  • Causes of Infertility in Female
  • Investigation for Infertility in Female
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
Read 3718 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 21 September 2017 19:03

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that produce spermatozoa and secrete testosterone), a paired system of ducts comprising of epididymis, vasa deferentia, and ejaculatory ducts (collect, store, and conduct spermatozoa), paired seminal vesicles and a single prostate gland (produce nutritive and lubricating…

  • Infertility
  • Infertility in Male
  • Male Infertility
  • Causes of Infertility in Male
  • Investigation for Infertility in Male
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
Read 3156 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 20:21

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is the upper part surrounding the entrance of the esophagus and is lined by the mucus-secreting epithelium. The epithelium of the fundus and the body of the stomach is composed of different cell types including: (i)…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Pathology Notes
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Gastric Anatomy
  • Gastric Physiology
Read 5415 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer). Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion and is mediated by vagus nerve. This response is abolished by vagotomy. In this test, after determining BAO, insulin…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Tests for Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4979 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac failure, or non-cooperative patient. Pyloric stenosis: Obstruction of gastric outlet can elevate gastric acid output due to raised gastrin (following…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Contraindications to Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4391 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:18

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e. basal and peak acid output). This test was introduced in the past mainly for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Indications for Gastric Analysis
  • Recurrent Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
  • Pernicious Anemia
  • Malignant Ulcer
  • Peptic Ulcer Dyspepsia
Read 5033 times
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