Displaying articles by tag: Laboratory Test Procedure

Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 28 April 2018 14:06

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Why is this test performed? This hormone test is evaluated in different conditions, such as Adrenal insufficiency, in Acromegaly and Cushing Syndrome. In Addison's disease, the level of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is noted more than 1000 pg/ml. In Adrenal carcinoma, Adenoma, and Adrenocortical insufficiency, the level of Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreases.…

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  • Clinical Pathology
  • ACTH
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Lab Test
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Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 28 September 2017 09:23

TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)

Total serum thyroxine includes both free and protein-bound thyroxine and is usually measured by competitive immunoassay. Normal level in adults is 5.0-12.0 μg/dl.   Test for total thyroxine or free thyroxine is usually combined with TSH measurement and together they give the best assessment of thyroid function.   Causes of…

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  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Total Thyroxine T4 Normal Range
  • Total Thyroxine Test
  • Total Thyroxine Vs Free Thyroxine
  • Total Thyroxine Levels
Read 5525 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Friday, 22 September 2017 08:37

FEMALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

The ovaries are the sites of production of female gametes or ova by the process of oogenesis. The ova are released by the process of ovulation in a cyclical manner at regular intervals. Ovary contains numerous follicles that contain ova in various stages of development. During each menstrual cycle, up…

  • Infertility
  • Infertility in Female
  • Female Infertility
  • Causes of Infertility in Female
  • Investigation for Infertility in Female
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
Read 3737 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 21 September 2017 19:03

MALE INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND INVESTIGATIONS

The male reproductive system consists of testes (paired organs located in the scrotal sac that produce spermatozoa and secrete testosterone), a paired system of ducts comprising of epididymis, vasa deferentia, and ejaculatory ducts (collect, store, and conduct spermatozoa), paired seminal vesicles and a single prostate gland (produce nutritive and lubricating…

  • Infertility
  • Infertility in Male
  • Male Infertility
  • Causes of Infertility in Male
  • Investigation for Infertility in Male
  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
Read 3163 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer). Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion and is mediated by vagus nerve. This response is abolished by vagotomy. In this test, after determining BAO, insulin…

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  • Laboratory
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  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Tests for Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 5018 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac failure, or non-cooperative patient. Pyloric stenosis: Obstruction of gastric outlet can elevate gastric acid output due to raised gastrin (following…

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  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Contraindications to Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4418 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:18

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e. basal and peak acid output). This test was introduced in the past mainly for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease…

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  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Indications for Gastric Analysis
  • Recurrent Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
  • Pernicious Anemia
  • Malignant Ulcer
  • Peptic Ulcer Dyspepsia
Read 5063 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 05 September 2017 18:51

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion. Basal acid output (BAO) is the amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted in the absence of any external stimuli (visual, olfactory, or auditory). Maximum acid…

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  • Method of Gastric Analysis
  • Gastric Analysis Method
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Method for Combined Gastrointestional Feeding and Aspiration
  • Gastric Aspiration
  • Gastric Problems
  • Gastric Ulcer
Read 12948 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 30 August 2017 18:26

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for Parasites A random specimen of stool (at least 4 ml or 4 cm³) is collected in a clean, dry, container with a tightly fitting lid (a tin box, plastic box, glass jar, or waxed cardboard…

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  • Microscopic Examination of Feces
  • Examination of Feces
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Technique
Read 10628 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 29 August 2017 20:21

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH Figure 845.1: Chemical examinations done on fecal sample Test for Occult Blood in Stools Presence of blood in feces which is not…

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  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Examination of Feces
  • Chemical Examination of Feces
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 9382 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 27 August 2017 20:46

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water. 1. Glycosuria In renal glycosuria, glucose is excreted in urine, while blood glucose level is normal. This is because of a specific tubular lesion…

  • Laboratory Tests to Evaluate Tubular Function
  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Renal Function Test
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4287 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 27 August 2017 08:15

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of glomerular damage in diabetes mellitus is occurrence of microalbuminuria (albuminuria in the range of 30 to 300 mg/24 hours). An albuminuria > 300-mg/24 hour is termed clinical or overt and indicates significant glomerular damage. (See…

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  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Renal Function Test
Read 1629 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 26 August 2017 20:43

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Although convenient, they are insensitive markers of glomerular function.   Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)   Urea is produced in the liver from amino acids (ingested or tissue-derived). Amino acids are utilized to produce…

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  • Renal Function Test
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Methods for Estimation of Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Methods for Estimation of Serum Creatinine
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Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 26 August 2017 17:35

Estimation of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine by Prediction Equations

One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a person from the following formula (Cockcroft and Gault):     Creatinine clearance in ml/min = (140 - Age in years) × (Body weight in kg)                     …

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  • Estimation of Creatinine Clearance
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Renal Function Test
Read 23913 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 26 August 2017 07:44

CLEARANCE TESTS TO MEASURE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)

Glomerular filtration rate refers to the rate in ml/min at which a substance is cleared from the circulation by the glomeruli. The ability of the glomeruli to filter a substance from the blood is assessed by clearance studies. If a substance is not bound to protein in plasma, is completely…

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  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Renal Function Test
  • Creatinine Clearance Test
  • Insulin Clearance Test
  • Clearance of Radiolabeled Agents
  • Cystatin C Clearance Test
  • Urea Clearance
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 3400 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 23 August 2017 17:32

RENAL BIOPSY: INDICATIONS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, COMPLICATIONS AND PROCEDURE

Renal biopsy refers to obtaining a small piece of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Percutaneous renal biopsy was first performed by Alwall in 1944.

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Histopathology
  • Biopsy
  • Renal Biopsy
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Renal Biopsy Indications
  • Renal Biopsy Contraindications
  • Renal Biopsy Complications
  • Renal Biopsy Procedure
  • Risks in Renal Biopsy Procedure
  • Pathology Notes
  • How to
  • Article
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  • Renal Function Test
Read 5861 times
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