Displaying articles by tag: How to

Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 24 November 2018 19:47

Detection of Fake or Adulterate Urine Sample

Detection of a fake or adulterated urine sample is necessary before going to the further process of urine testing in the laboratory. Urine adulteration causes false-positive and false-negative results. However, most attempts of a fake or adulteration in a urine sample can be detected either by a trained collection site…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • How to
  • How to Avoid Adulteration in Employee Drug Testing
  • Detection of Fake Urine
Read 2757 times
Dayyal Dg. in Skin Disorders and Care
Sunday, 12 August 2018 16:14

Difference Between Warts, Corns and Calluses

WARTS A wart is a viral infection of the surface layers of the skin. The incubation period varies from a few weeks to several months. Warts can be spread by direct or indirect contact with a wart to damaged skin. CORNS A corn is a small, hardened area of skin which often…

  • How to
  • Warts Remover
  • Corn Remover
  • Difference Between Warts and Corns
  • Skin Disorders and Care
Read 1265 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 01 August 2018 08:05

Bilirubin: Total, Direct and Indirect Bilirubin (Different Types of Jaundice)

Why is this test performed? This test is performed for the diagnosis and differentiation of jaundice. This test is also done in a patient with hemolytic anemia in adult and newborn. This test is very useful to evaluate liver functions and for the follow-up of a patient with treatment. Collection…

  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Lab Test
  • Lab Test Procedure
  • Liver Function Test
  • Different Types of Jaundice
  • Total Bilirubin
  • Direct Bilirubin
  • Indirect Bilirubin
  • Article
  • How to
Read 11511 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 31 July 2018 07:00

Serum Albumin Test: Purpose, Procedure, and Normal Values

Why is this test performed? This test is evaluated in different conditions and diseases such as nephrotic syndrome, liver diseases, kidney diseases, in a patient suspected of malnutrition, and patients severe burn. See also: Procedures for the collection of blood for hemotological investigations. Collection of sample For the estimation of…

  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Lab Test
  • Lab Test Procedure
Read 3342 times
Dayyal Dg. in Zoology
Tuesday, 06 February 2018 14:42

PROCESS OF FORMATION OF PEARL IN MOLLUSCS

The “pearl” is literally formed by the mantle epithelium, which becomes deposit around any external body or particles, these external particle or body invade in between the shell and mantle in any way. Pearl is secreted by the mantle as a means of protection against a small external particle. When…

  • Process of Pearl Formation In Molluscs
  • Why Do Oysters Make Pearls
  • How are Pearls Harvested
  • How Long Does It Take To Make a Pearl
  • Pearls Formation In Molluscs
  • Formation of Pearl in Molluscs
  • Zoology
  • Zoology Notes
  • Article
  • How to
Read 12452 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 20:21

NORMAL GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Anatomically, stomach is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pyloric part. Cardia is the upper part surrounding the entrance of the esophagus and is lined by the mucus-secreting epithelium. The epithelium of the fundus and the body of the stomach is composed of different cell types including: (i)…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Pathology Notes
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Gastric Anatomy
  • Gastric Physiology
Read 5451 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

LABORATORY TESTS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Hollander’s test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer). Hypoglycemia is a potent stimulus for gastric acid secretion and is mediated by vagus nerve. This response is abolished by vagotomy. In this test, after determining BAO, insulin…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Tests for Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 5018 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:53

CONTRAINDICATIONS TO GASTRIC ANALYSIS

Gastric intubation for gastric analysis is contraindicated in esophageal stricture or varices, active nasopharyngeal disease, diverticula, malignancy, recent history of severe gastric hemorrhage, hypertension, aortic aneurysm, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive cardiac failure, or non-cooperative patient. Pyloric stenosis: Obstruction of gastric outlet can elevate gastric acid output due to raised gastrin (following…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Contraindications to Gastric Analysis
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4418 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Thursday, 07 September 2017 18:18

INDICATIONS FOR GASTRIC ANALYSIS

In gastric analysis, amount of acid secreted by the stomach is determined on aspirated gastric juice sample. Gastric acid output is estimated before and after stimulation of parietal cells (i.e. basal and peak acid output). This test was introduced in the past mainly for the evaluation of peptic ulcer disease…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Indications for Gastric Analysis
  • Recurrent Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
  • Pernicious Anemia
  • Malignant Ulcer
  • Peptic Ulcer Dyspepsia
Read 5063 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 05 September 2017 18:51

METHOD OF GASTRIC ANALYSIS

To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric acid secretion. Basal acid output (BAO) is the amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted in the absence of any external stimuli (visual, olfactory, or auditory). Maximum acid…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Method of Gastric Analysis
  • Gastric Analysis Method
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Method for Combined Gastrointestional Feeding and Aspiration
  • Gastric Aspiration
  • Gastric Problems
  • Gastric Ulcer
Read 12948 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Wednesday, 30 August 2017 18:26

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF FECES

Microscopic examinations done on fecal sample are shown in Figure 846.1. Collection of Specimen for Parasites A random specimen of stool (at least 4 ml or 4 cm³) is collected in a clean, dry, container with a tightly fitting lid (a tin box, plastic box, glass jar, or waxed cardboard…

  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Microscopic Examination of Feces
  • Examination of Feces
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Technique
Read 10628 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Tuesday, 29 August 2017 20:21

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FECES

Chemical examination of feces is usually carried out for the following tests (Figure 845.1): Occult blood Excess fat excretion (malabsorption) Urobilinogen Reducing sugars Fecal osmotic gap Fecal pH Figure 845.1: Chemical examinations done on fecal sample Test for Occult Blood in Stools Presence of blood in feces which is not…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Examination of Feces
  • Chemical Examination of Feces
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 9382 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 27 August 2017 20:46

LABORATORY TESTS TO EVALUATE TUBULAR FUNCTION

Tests to Assess Proximal Tubular Function Renal tubules efficiently reabsorb 99% of the glomerular filtrate to conserve the essential substances like glucose, amino acids, and water. 1. Glycosuria In renal glycosuria, glucose is excreted in urine, while blood glucose level is normal. This is because of a specific tubular lesion…

  • Laboratory Tests to Evaluate Tubular Function
  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Renal Function Test
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Diseases and Disorders
Read 4287 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Sunday, 27 August 2017 08:15

MICROALBUMINURIA AND ALBUMINURIA

Normally, a very small amount of albumin is excreted in urine. The earliest evidence of glomerular damage in diabetes mellitus is occurrence of microalbuminuria (albuminuria in the range of 30 to 300 mg/24 hours). An albuminuria > 300-mg/24 hour is termed clinical or overt and indicates significant glomerular damage. (See…

  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Renal Function Test
Read 1629 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 26 August 2017 20:43

BIOCHEMICAL TESTS USED TO ASSESS RENAL FUNCTION

Two biochemical parameters are commonly used to assess renal function: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine. Although convenient, they are insensitive markers of glomerular function.   Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)   Urea is produced in the liver from amino acids (ingested or tissue-derived). Amino acids are utilized to produce…

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Diseases and Disorders
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Renal Function Test
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Methods for Estimation of Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Methods for Estimation of Serum Creatinine
Read 4674 times
Dayyal Dg. in Clinical Pathology
Saturday, 26 August 2017 17:35

Estimation of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine by Prediction Equations

One can estimate GFR from age, sex, body weight, and serum creatinine value of a person from the following formula (Cockcroft and Gault):     Creatinine clearance in ml/min = (140 - Age in years) × (Body weight in kg)                     …

  • Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Pathology Notes
  • Notes
  • Article
  • How to
  • Estimation of Creatinine Clearance
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory Technique
  • Laboratory Test Procedure
  • Renal Function Test
Read 23915 times
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