Plain tubes (i.e. without any anticoagulant) are used for chemistry studies after separation of serum: liver function tests (total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin), renal function tests (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine), calcium, lipid profile, electrolytes, hormones, and serum osmolality. Fluoride bulb is used for collection of whole blood for estimation of blood glucose. Addition of sodium fluoride (2.5 mg/ml of blood) maintains stable glucose level by inhibiting glycolysis. Sodium fluoride is commonly used along with an anticoagulant such as potassium oxalate or EDTA.