Insulin is the major hormone regulating blood glucose level. Insulin is synthesized by β cells of pancreas as preproinsulin, which is rapidly converted to proinsulin. Proinsulin is a single chain polypeptide. In the Golgi apparatus, proinsulin is broken down into 2 units- insulin (51 amino acids) and C (connecting)-polypeptide (31 amino acids) (Figure 1192.1).
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia due to deficiency and/or diminished effectiveness of insulin. There are derangements of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism due to failure of insulin action on target cells.
Diabetes is epidemic; there is barely any family left that does not have a member diagnosed with diabetes. In urban areas, almost one-tenth of people have diabetes, and at least one-third are at risk of developing it soon if they do not do something about it. That means if not diabetic, every family surely has someone with prediabetes.