National flower of Pakistan
Jasmine (Jasminum)

National flower of London

National fruit of Pakistan and India
Mango (Mangifera indica)

A plant with only 2 leaves
Welwitschai mirabilis (a gymnosperm)

Maiden Hair moss

Maiden hair fern
Adiantum capillusveneris

Grasses of sea

Children of sea

Forest of sea
Sea weeds (keips)

Joker of plant kingdom
Mycoplasma (PPLO)

Jewels of plant kingdom
Desmids (algae)

A gift of old world to new world
Wheat (Tritium)

A gift of new world to old world
Maize (Zea Mays)

Oldest cultivated crop
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Kalpvriksha (Tree of heaven)
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera)

First land inhabiting plants

Red Sea
Due to blue green alga Trichondesmium erythreum

Most commonly seen fungi

Drosophila of plant kingdom
Neurospora crassa (red/pink Bread mould)

Guinea pig of microbiology and weed of laboratories
Aspergillus niger-green mold

Ovary rotates by 1800 in orchids

Major source of sugar in world
Beet roots

A device in which plants are grown in controlled conditions.

Tillandsw usneoids
Grows on telegraphic wires

Ermarki and Ranunculus lobatus
Plants recorded at higher altitude (21000 ft)

Smallest Angiosperm
Woiffia arrhiza inch long rootless.

Smallest flower
Woiffia microscopica (duck weed) 0. 1 mm

Smallest seed
Orchids (weighs 0.004 mg)

Smallest Gymnosperm
Zamina pygmea (25 cm tall)

Smallest acellular oganisms 
Mycoplasma galliseptium (0.3—0.5 μL)

Minimum number of chromosomes in Angiosperms and in an eukaryote
Haplopappus gracilis 2n = 4

Smallest Algae
Chalamydomonas (Green alga)

Largest Algae
Macrocvstis (Brown Alga — kelp) upto 60 mt.

Smallest fungi

Largest fungi
Ganoderma (A wood fungus) 1 mt. Fomes (56 x 37’)

Smallest bryophyte
Zoopsis, Ephemerum (Pigmy moss)

Largest bryophyte
Dawsonia, Fontinalis (brook moss)

Smallest pteridophyte

Largest pteridophyte
Treefem (Cyathaea) 20 mt. Aisphila (60 feet)

marine angiosperm
zostera, Thalassa

Walking fern
Adianturn caudatum

Sun fern

Aquatic ferns
Azolla, Marsilea, Salvinia

Betula utilis — Bark of this plant was used to write manuscript in ancient times.

Saprophytic angiosperms
Wullshcleigellia, Neottia (Bird’s nest orchid), Monotrapa (Indian pipe plant) Carallorhiza etc. absorb humus through fungi

Red Data Book
A book containing information of endangered plant and animals

Green Data Book
A book with list of rare plants growing in protected areas like gardens.

A stemless herb

Sulphur shower
Liberation of pollen grain in large amount by pine trees.

Killer weed
Parthenium hysterophorus (called- congress or carrot grass, belongs to family compositae)

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The following list shows most commonly used symbols in biology and their meaning arranged in a alphabetical manner.
  • A is a biology symbol for Androecium

  • Adenine
  • ABA 
    Abscisic acid
  • ATP 
    Adenosine triphosphate
  • Aa 
    Heterozygous dominant
  • AAAA 
  • AABB 

  • Angstrom ( = 0.0001 of a micron)
  • ADP  is a biological symbol for Adenosine diphosphate
  • ADA 
    Adenosine deaminase
  • AIDS 
    Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome
  • AMP 
    Adenosine mono phosphate
  • 1 Atmosphere 
    76.00 cm of Hg=1.Olx 1O Pa.
  • ANS 
    Autonomic Nervous system
  • ACT 
    Acoustic test facility
  • ACTH 
    Adreno cortico trophic hormone
  • 5 Bro 
    5 Bromo uracil
  • Br 
    Bracteate flower.Bacteriophage
  • BOD 
    Biochemical oxygen demand

  • Corolla
  • 1 dyne 
  • CDP 
    Cytosine diphosphate
  • CTP 
    Cytosine triphosphate
  • CT 
    Calcitonin Hormone
  • Cyt 
  • Cp 
  • CMP 
    Cytosine monophosphate
  • CVA 
    Cerebrovascular accident
  • CoA 
    Coenzyme A

  • Cystosine
  • COD 
    Chemical Oxygen demand
  • CIFRI 
    Central inland fisheries research institute
  • DNP 
    Deoxyribo nucleoproteins.
  • DPD 
    Diffusion pressure deficit
  • DPT 
    Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus Vaccine
  • DNA 
    Deoxyribose nucleic acid
  • DPN 
    Diphosphopyridine nucleotide
  • EPR 
    Electro paramagnetic resonance
  • ECG 
    Electro cardiograph
  • EEG 
    Electro encephalograph
  • Ebr 
  • EMP 
    Embden. Meyerhof Parnas pathway
  • ELISA 
    Enzyme linked Immuno Sorbant
  • Epi Presence of epicalyx
  • ETS 
    Energy transfer system
  • ER 
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  • EM 
    Electron microscope
  • FSH 
    Follicle stimulating hormone
  • FAD 
    Flavin adenine dinucleotide
  • FMN 
    Flavin mono nucleotide
  • F2 -Second filial generation.
  • FADH2 
    Flavin idenine dinucleotide (reduced)
  • F1 -First Filial generation.
  • GMP 
    Guanosine monophosphate
  • GMF 
    Genetically Modified Foad
  • GMO 
    Genetically modified Organisms
  • GA 
    Gibberellic acid

  • Guanine
  • GH 
    Growth hormone
  • GTH 
    Gonadotrophic hormone
  • HCLV-.III 
    Human cell leukaemia virus III
  • HIV 
    Human immuno deficiency virus
  • ICSH 
    Interstitial cells stimulating hormone
  • IAA 
    Indole—3— acetic acid
  • ICRAF 
    International council for research in Agroforest
  • 1 Newton 
    1 x 1O dynes
  • LH 
    Luteinising hormone
  • mRNA 
    Messenger Ribose Nucleic acid
  • 1 microgram 
    106 gm
  • 1 microlitre (ml) 
    106 litre
  • 1 Micrometre (mm) 
  • MET 
  • MSH 
    Melanocyte stimulating hormone
  • NMRI 
    Nuclear magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • NAD 
    Nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide
  • NADH2 
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)
  • NAA 
    Naphthalene acetic acid.

  • Nanometre
  • oc 
    Oral Contraceptive
  • oPv 
    Oral Police Vaccine
  • PEPA 
    Phosphoenol pyruvic acid
  • Pstd 
  • PSI’ 
    Pigment system II
  • PAN 
    Peroxyacyl nitrate
  • PEM 
    Protein energy malnutrition
  • PPi 
    Inorganic Pyrophosphate

  • Perianth
  • PGA 
    Phosphoglyceric acid
  • PKU 
  • PS-I 
    Pigment system
  • PIH 
    Protein inhibiting hormone
  • PPLO 
    Pleuro pneumonia-like organisms
  • RH 
    Releasing hormone
  • RG 
    Regulator gene
  • RPF 
    Rehal Plasma flow
  • RUBP (RUDP) 
    Ribulose biophosphate
Cell Biology (Gr., kytos-hollow vessel or cell, logos-to discourse) is a biological science which deals with the study of cells. The cell itself can be regarded as the vital unit of organisms.
'Aristotle' and 'Paracelsus' concluded that "all animals and plants, how­ever, complicated are constituted by few elements which are repeated in each one of them."
The beginning of cell biology dates back to the 15th century, when 'Da Vinci in 1485 has stressed upon the use of lenses in viewing small objects. In 1658, 'Jan Swammerdam' gave the first description of the cell in his account of the red blood cells of the frog. The cytology came in its actual existence with the discovery of cell in 1665, by "Robert Hooke", while examining a thin slice of cork under his crude compound microscope, Hooke observed its honey-combed structure. He gave them the name "cells" (cellulae -little room).
Malphighi studied a variety of animal tissues microscopically and there­fore, he is generally considered as the father of 'microscopic anatomy '.
'A.V. Leeuwen Hoek (1632-1723) discovered the animalcules, infusoria (Protozoa), bacteria, etc., and made microscopical observations on protozoa, ants, aphids, spermatozoa, red blood cells etc.
The cell theory was proposed by two German biologists 'M.J. Schleiden' (1804-1881), and Theodor Schwann' (1810-1882) independently in 1838 and 1839, respectively. The cell theory holds that the animals and plants have same pattern of organization and construction. The bodies of both animals and plants are composed of cells and that each cell can act independently. In words of 'Schwann' and 'Schleiden' cell is "functional biological unit".
"Rudolf Virchow" in 1885 stated, "where a cell exists there must have been a pre-existing cell, just as the animal arises only from an animal and the plants only from a plant".
"Purkinje" in 1840 coined the term protoplasm. The protoplasm was first of all observed by "Corti" (1772) and the French Zoologist 'Dujardin' (1835) called it sarcode.
"Huxley" in 1868 referred to protoplasm as the "physical basis of life".
The protoplasm theory states that all living matter of animals and plants is protoplasm. The part of the protoplasm which occurs between the plasma membrane and nucleus is named as cytoplasm.
20th century brought many modern micro techniques. New histo chemical and cyto chemical methods have been developed to detect various molecular components of the cell. Different biochemical events of the cell could be known by autoradiography. Methods of tissue culturing have made possible the study of living cells.
Year Names of contributor Cytological contribution
1824 R.J.H. Dutrochet Showed that all animals and plants composed of cells.
1826 Turpin Reported the occurrence of cell division.
1831 R. Brown Described the nucleus
1835 Felix Dujardin Described protoplasm as ("Sarcode")
1838 M.J.Schleiden Proposed "Cell theory"
1839 T.Schwann Applied "Cell theory" to animals.
1840 J.E. Purkinje Named the cell contents as Protoplasm.
1855 R.Virchow Stated that all cells arise from pre-existing cell.
1857 Kollieker Discovered mitochondrian
1863 Waldeyer Chromosomes of cell
1871 F. Miescher discovered nucleo-protein and nucleic acid.
1882 Strasburger described mitosis in plant cells
1887 E.Van Benden discovered centrioles.
1888 T.Boweri described the centrioles.
1888 Waldeyer Introduced the term chromosome.
1902 W.S.Sutton Proposed "the chromosome theory" heredity.
1905 J.B.Farmer along with J.E.Moore. Coined the term meiosis 
1943 A.Claude Isolated cell components like ribosomes, mitochondria and nuclei
1952 C. Du Duve Identified hysosomes.
1953 J.D.Watson and F.H.C. Crick Proposed the double helixmodel for the DNA molecule.
1959 S.Ochoa Synthesis of polyribonuclotide in vitro.
1959 A.Kornberg Synthesis of polydeoxiri-
1968 M.W.Nirenberg and H.G.Khorana. Triplet genetic code.
1968 R.H.HoIley discovery of base sequence of RNA
The leeches are common in tem­perate parts of the world. The common cattle leech is found in India, Burma, Ceylon. It is found in lakes, ditches, ponds and slow moving streams. It is sanguivorous parasite, (feeds on the blood of cattle). H. granulosa, H. manillensis, H.javanica, H. viridis are different species met with the genus. leech body consists various kinds of parasitic adaptations for sucking blood from their hosts.
Phylum: Annelida
Class: Hirudinea
Order: Gnathobdellida
i) Shape and size: Hirudinaria is soft, vermiform, elongated and dorsi ventrally flattened worm. It is 10 to 15 cm long. The body is broad near the posterior and while narrow near the anterior end. The dorsal surface is somewhat convex and the ventral surface is more or less flat.
ii) Colouration: The body of the leech is brightly colored. The dorsal surface is olive-green; the ventral surface is orange-yellow in color. Distinct stripes are seen on the body.
iii) Segmentation of the body: The body is divided into 33 segments. Externally it is divided into more segments which are called annuli. There are 109 annuli in a leech. The number of annuli varies in different segments. A typical segment of the middle part of the body includes five annuli.
iv) Suckers: Body bears 2 suckers. They anterior sucker or oral sucker is oval and ventrally-directed, formed, by the first 3 segments, it includes mouth. At the posterior end of body a circular and highly muscular posterior or anal sucker is formed by fusion of seven body segments, meant for attachment and Locomotion.
leech hirudinaria structure1
v) Regions of the Body: The entire body is divided into 6 regions.
    1. Cephalic region
    2. Pre-clitellar region.
    3. Clitellar region
    4. Middle region
    5. Caudal region
    6. Posterior region.
1) Cephalic region: It contains first five segments called ocular segments. In this region prostomium, anterior sucker, mouth and eyes are present.
a) First segments contain-one annulus.
b) 3rd segment contains 2 annuli.
c) 4 and 5th segments contain 3 annuli each.
2) Preclitellar region: It consists of 6th, 7th and 8th segments The 6th segment has 3annuliwhile 7th and 8th segments have 5 annuli each. They show nephridiopores.
3) Clitellar region: It consists of 9th, 10th and 11th segments. On the ventral surface of 10th segement in the middle line a male genital opening is present. On the ventral surface of 11th segment female genital opening is present. A temporary clitellum is formed during breeding season. All the segments have 5 annuli each.
4) Middle region: It consists of 12 to 26 segments all show 5 annuli and pairs of nephridiopores.
5) Caudal region: It contains 23 to 26 segments the 23rd segment has three annuli and segments 24, 25 and 26 have two annuli each. On the 26th segment anus is present dorsally.
6) Posterior region: This consists of last 7 single annular segments which unite to form posterior region.
vi) External apertures:
  1. Mouth: Mouth is a triradiate aperture present in the anterior sucker.
  2. Nephridiopores: 17 pairs of nephridiopores are present. One pair lies ventrally on the last annulus of each segment from 6 to 22 segments.
  3. Male genital opening: Male genital aperture is a mid-ventral opening in between second and third annuli of 10th segment.
  4. Female genital opening: Female genital opening lies mid-ventrally in between second and third annuli of 11th segment.
  5. Anus: Anus is a small opening present mid-dorsally on the 26th segment at the base of posterior sucker.
Anatomy — It is a branch of biology which deals with the study of internal structure of an organism as revealed by dissection. 
Arthrology — Study of joints.
Agriology — Study of customs of primitive man.
Aphidology — Study of aphids (plant lice).
Aerobiology — Study of flying organisms in relation with other flying objects.
Agronomy — The management of farms and the science of crop production is called agronomy.
Anthropology — The science of man and mankind including his physical and mental constitution, cultural development and social conditions of present and past is called anthropology.
Anthology — It is a branch of biology study of flowers.
Agrostology — It is the study of grasses.
Acarology — Study of order acarina comprising ticks and mites.
Acrology — Study of ticks and mites is called acrology.
Aerobiology — Study of air borne organisms and structures such as spores etc. and their distribution.
Agriology — It is the comparative study of tribal customs.
Agrobiology — It is the quantitative science of plant life and plant nutrition.
Agrology — It is the soil sciecne dealing with production of crops.
Andrology — It is the study of male reproductive organs.
Araneology — It is the study of spiders.
Arboriculture — Cultivation of trees and shrubs is called arboriculture.
Agriculture — It deals with the cultivation of crops and the improved methods of farming.
Actinobiology — Study of radiation effect on living organisms.
Angiology — It is a biology branch Study of blood vessels.
Bionformatics — It is branch of science concerned with development and application of computing system and technology in order to make novel observation about biological processes.
Biotechnology — It is the controlled use of biological agents such as micro-organisms or cellular components for beneficial use.
Breeding biology — Breeding is art and science of changing and improving the heredity of plant and animals.
Biochemistry — Study of chemical aspect of living organims is termed biochemistry.
Bacteriology — Study of bacteria.
Batrachology — It is the study of frog.
Biocimatology — The study of climatic effects on biological processes and organisms.
Biometrology — Study of effects of atmospheric changes on living organisms.
Bionics — It is study of problem solving by humans, animals and its technical application.
Bacteriology — It is the study of bacteria.
Bryology — It is the study of bryophytes. Computational biology. Systematic development, application and validation of computational hardware solution for building simulation models of bilogical systems.
Cytology — It deals with the study of structure and functions of cell.
Cell Biology — The study of structure, functions, reproduction, energy dynamics, transport mechanism and life history of cell is called cell biology.
Cryobiology — It is the study of effect of low temperature on living organisms.
Chirology — It deals with communication system with deaf and mute by sign languages.
Chromatology — Study of pigments.
Ctetology — Study of acquired characters of organisms.
Chromatology — It is the science of colours.
Chronobiology — Study of biology of cyclic physiological phenomena.
Cosmology — Sciecne of structure and evolution of universe.
Cnidology — Study of coelenterates or Cnidarians Characteristics
Conchology — Study of shells.
Chondrology — Study of cartilage.
Craniology — Study of skull.
Cardiology — Study of heart.
Dysteleology — It is the study of appearance of vestigial organs due to evolution.
Dendrology — It is the study of shrubs and trees.
Developmental Biology — It deals with the study of processes by which organisms undergo progressive and orderly changes in structure as well as physiology during their entire life cycle.
Dermatology — Study of skin.
Developmental Morphology — It deals with the developmental aspects of plants.
Desmology — Study of structures and anatomy of ligaments.
Evolution — It is the branch of biology which deals with the study of descent of present day complex living organims (plants and animals) from the living forms of the past.
Embryology — It deals with the study of the stages of an organism that occur immediately after fertilization.
Ecology — It is the study of inter—relationship between living organisms and their environment.
Ethology — Study of animal behaviour and conditions of animals
Eugenics — It is the science dealing with the improvement of human race through application of the laws of heredity
Entomology — Study of insects.
Exobiology — The study of kind of life that may exist in outer space is called exobiology
Etiology — It is the study of causes of diseases.
Ecobiology — Study of adapations in relation to habitat.
Ecophysiology — Physiological adaptations in response to environment.
Epigenetics — It is the study of mechanisms by which genes and, their products bring about phenotypic expression.
Ethnobotany — It is the relationship between primitive humans and plants.
Ethnology — It is science dealing with different races of man kind.
Economic Botany — It deals with the study of various uses of plants and their products.
Environmental management — It is the assessment of environment, finding out the ways and means for remedy of environmental problems and for conservation of biodiversity so as to maintain the balance in nature. Forensic science — Application of science for identification of various facts about blood groups, hair, poisons, narcotics, finger prints, DNA finger printing for solving civilian and criminal cases.
Food technology — Study of processing and preservation of food is called food technology.
Forestry or silviculture — It deals with the development of forests and the utilization of their products.
Gynaecology — Study of female reproductive organs.
Gerontology — It is a branch of developmental biology which deals with the study of ageing.
Genetics — It is the study of genes heredity and variations.
Genecology — Study of genetical make up of species or population in relation to habitat.
Genetic engineering — The methods of artificial synthesis dna
Horticulture — It deals with the study of plants cultivated in gardens and orchards.
Hypnology — Science dealing with sleep including the one from hypnosis.
Helminthology — Study of parasitic worms.
Herpetology — Study of reptiles.
Hepatology — Study of liver.
Haematology — Study of blood.
Histology — The study of the structure and chemical composition of animal and plant tissue as related to the function.
heredity — It is the study of inheritance of characters from parents to offspring.
Ichthyology — Study of fishes or study of fishes and amphibians. 
Internal Morphology — It deals with the internal structure of plant parts and also called anatomy.
Ichnology — It is a branch of paleontology which deals with fossil foot prints.
Kalology — Study of human beauty.
Lepidepteriology — Study of butterflies and moths.
Limnology — Study of fresh water ecology.
Leprology — It is the study of leprosy its cause and cure.
Limnobiology — Its the study of fresh water.
Limnology — Study of fresh water ecology/study of snails.
Lichenology — It is the study of lichens.
Molecular Biology — Study of living organisms at the molecular level.
Morphology — It deals with the study of form and structure of animals.
Mammology — Study of mammals
Microbiology — Study of microscopic organisms.
Malariology — Study of malaria.
Myremecology — Study of ants is termed myremecology.
Malacology — Study of molluscs.
Myology (Sarcology) — Study of muscles.
Mastology — Study of breast including teats is called mastology.
Mycology — It is the study of fungi.
Neinatology — Study of nematodes (round worms).
Nephrology — Study of kidney.
Neonatalogy — It is science of study of new borns up to twenty eight days in humans.
Neurology — Study of nervous system.
Nidology — Study of nests of birds.
Ornithology — Study of birds.
Ophthalmology — Study of eyes.
Osteology — Study of bones
Organocology — Study of development of organs under embryology.
Olericulture — Its the branch of agriculture dealing with vegetables
Palaeozoology — It is the study of animal fossils.
Phenology — Study of organisms as affected by seasonal climates e.g. bird migration, opening of flowers etc.
Physiology — Study of functions of various parts of body is called physiology.
Parasitology — Study of parasites.
Protozoology — Study of unicellular organisms. i.e.Protozoa Characters 
Parazoology — Study of sponges.
Pathology — Nature, symptoms, causes, effects, prevention and suggestive cure of disease is called pathology.
Plant physiology — It is the study of various functional aspects or life processes of the plants.
Plant taxonomy — It is the study of identification, nomenclature and classification of plants.
Palaeobotany — It is the study of fossils of prehistoric plants.
Plant ecology — The study of relationship of plants with the environment is termed plant ecology.
Plant geography — The study of distribution of plants over the surface of earth.
Phycology — It is the study of algae.
Plant pathology — It is the study of plant diseases, their causes, symptoms and methods of control.
Pteridology — It is the study of pteridophytes.
Palynology — It is the study of pollen grains and sperms.
Pomology — It is the study of fruits.
Protology — It is the study of hind gut including rectum and anus.
Physiotherapy — Treatment of defects by physical remedies is called physiotherapy.
Protistology — It is the study of protists.
Phenology — Study of periodicity phenomenon of organisms e.g. Bird Migration.
Pharmacology — It is the study of medicine or drug plants.
Plant breeding — It is the study of genetics in relation to selective crossing and reproduction between different plants.
Plant agronomy — It is the science of soil management and production of crops.
Pharmacognsy — It is the scientific study of structural, physical, chemical and sensory characters of plants, cultivation, collection and other particulars relating to their uses.
Pharmacology — Study of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms.
Phrenology — Study of mental faculties of brain including feelings.
Plant Morphology — Study of form and structure of plant organ is called morphology.
Rhinology — Study of nose and olfactory organs.
Serology — Study of serum ; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood.
Splanchnology — Study of visceral cavity and its organs.
Soil Science — The study of soil involving its structure, type and dynamics is called soil science.
Sedimentology — Study of rocks and fossils.
Space biology — It is the study of problem of survival living organisms in outer space.
Serpentology (Ophiology) — Study of snakes.
Saurology — Study of lizards.
Sitology — Science of food, diet and nutrition.
Stomatology — It is the study of foregut.
Speciology — Study of species.
Sarcology — It is branch of anatomy which deals with fleshy parts of body.
Spelaeology — Study of caves and cave life.
Teratology — lt is a branch of developmental biology which deals with the study of developmental abnormalities during embryonic stages.
Taxonomy — It deals with the principles of identification, nomenclature and classification of the animals.
Torentology — It is the study of diseases of embryo.
Taphonomy — It deals with the study of conditions conducive to fossilization of organisms in the plant.
Tricology — Study of hairs is called trichology.
Trophology — Study of nutrition is called tropology.
Toxicology — Study of narcotic effect on animals.
Therapeutics — Study of healing.
Tectology — It is the study of structural organization animals.
Traumatology — Study of injuries and wounds.
Urology — Study of excretory system.
Virology — It is the study of viruses.
Xenology — It is the study of hosts in relation to life history of parasites.
Zoogeography — It is the study of distribution of animals in different geographic regions.
Zoopathology — Study of diseases of animals.
Zoophytology — Study of drifting organisms such as diatoms.
Zymology — Study of fermentation is called zymology.
Zootechny — Science of breeding and domesticating animals.
Zoonosology — it is the study of handicapped animals.
Zoology — Study of Animals


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