Pollination in Rafflesia
By flies/mites

Dispersal of seeds in Rafflesia
By Elephant

Smallest parasite
Arceuthobium minutissimum — It lives in stem of Pinus,

Rootless plants
Balanophora, Utricularia, Ceratophylium, Woiffia

article continued below

Plantless roots
plants have only roots to perform assimilation/growth/reproduction e.g. Sapria, Podostemum, Arceuthobium, Rafflesia

Scindapsus (family Araceae)
First terrestrial and then becomes epiphyte

Arachis hypogea (Ground nut)
Flowering occurs outside soil and after fertilization, ovaries go into soil where fruit formation occurs. It is called Geocarpy and is due to auxin action.

Plant with Broadest leaves
Victoria amazonica, (Amazon lily) leaf diameter 1.5 to 1.8 m

Plant with Longest leaf
Raphia vinifera (10—15 m)

Largest (Tallest) angiosperm
Eucalyptus regnans (114 m)

Tallest Gymnosperm
Sequoiadenron sempervirens ( = Sequoia gigantea) Douglosfir or Californian red wood tree

Largest flower
Rafflesia arnoldi ( 1 mt in dia, wt 7 kg) It is a root parasite on Tetrastigma roots

Largest inflorescence
Amorphophallus titanum (5.5 m) may be upto 12 m in Agave

Largest cotyledons
Capsella bursa pestoris (Shepherd’s purse)

Biggest fruit
Lodoicea maldivica (Double coconut wt 6 kg)

Largest diameter of a tree
Taxodium mucronatum (100—125 ft) Cestanea (167 feet)

Strongest wood used to keep mummies
Taxodium mucronatum (a gymnosperm)

Maximum number of chromosomes, plant
Ophioglossum reticulatum (2n = 1262)

Aulacantha Radiolarians (2n = 1600)

Smallest Archegonium is found in

Largest Archegonium is found in

Smallest gametophyte plant

Largest gametopilytic plant

Smallest pollen grain (2.5 t)

Largest pollen grain (250 j.t)

Biggest ovule
Cycas thourasii (7 cm in length)

Biggest sperm

Biggest egg

Largest seed
Lodoicea maidivica

Maximum number of chromosomes in Angiospérms
Poa litorosa 2n = 266

Smallest chromosome
An alga (0.025 rim)

Largest chromosome
Trillium govanianuin (30 jim)

Minimum number of chromosomes - Plant
Mucor, Porphyra (n = 2)

Minimum number of chromosomes - Animal
Ascaris (2n = 2)

Highest yielding cereal (grain) crop

Largest and widest cultivated crop
Rice (Oryza sativ)

Most advanced family
Compositae in dicots and gramineae in monocots

Billiards ball is made
from vegetable (Ivory) Palm (Phvtelephas microcarpa)

Lightest wood
Balsa (Ochrorna Pyramidale) sp. gr. 00444

Heaviest wood of world
Guaicum officinale ( sp. gr. I .49 wt. 93 lb/cubic feet

Fire proof wood (wood without resin)
Sequoia dendron

Maximum life span of a tree
Macrozamia (10000 years), Dracaena (8000 years)

Largest spreading tree
Ficus bengulensis

Largest leaf in diameter
Victoria arnazonica (V. regia) Amazon lily dia. (5—6 ft)

Longest leaf
Raphia vinifera 30—50 ft

Longest Botanic Garden of World
Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, England

First Plant taxonomist

World’s largest herbarium
Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, England

<< Previous

National flower of Pakistan
Jasmine (Jasminum)

National flower of London

National fruit of Pakistan and India
Mango (Mangifera indica)

A plant with only 2 leaves
Welwitschai mirabilis (a gymnosperm)

article continued below

Maiden Hair moss

Maiden hair fern
Adiantum capillusveneris

Grasses of sea

Children of sea

Forest of sea
Sea weeds (keips)

Joker of plant kingdom
Mycoplasma (PPLO)

Jewels of plant kingdom
Desmids (algae)

A gift of old world to new world
Wheat (Tritium)

A gift of new world to old world
Maize (Zea Mays)

Oldest cultivated crop
Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

Kalpvriksha (Tree of heaven)
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera)

First land inhabiting plants

Red Sea
Due to blue green alga Trichondesmium erythreum

Most commonly seen fungi

Drosophila of plant kingdom
Neurospora crassa (red/pink Bread mould)

Guinea pig of microbiology and weed of laboratories
Aspergillus niger-green mold

Ovary rotates by 1800 in orchids

Major source of sugar in world
Beet roots

A device in which plants are grown in controlled conditions.

Tillandsw usneoids
Grows on telegraphic wires

Ermarki and Ranunculus lobatus
Plants recorded at higher altitude (21000 ft)

Smallest Angiosperm
Woiffia arrhiza inch long rootless.

Smallest flower
Woiffia microscopica (duck weed) 0. 1 mm

Smallest seed
Orchids (weighs 0.004 mg)

Smallest Gymnosperm
Zamina pygmea (25 cm tall)

Smallest acellular oganisms 
Mycoplasma galliseptium (0.3—0.5 μL)

Minimum number of chromosomes in Angiosperms and in an eukaryote
Haplopappus gracilis 2n = 4

Smallest Algae
Chalamydomonas (Green alga)

Largest Algae
Macrocvstis (Brown Alga — kelp) upto 60 mt.

Smallest fungi

Largest fungi
Ganoderma (A wood fungus) 1 mt. Fomes (56 x 37’)

Smallest bryophyte
Zoopsis, Ephemerum (Pigmy moss)

Largest bryophyte
Dawsonia, Fontinalis (brook moss)

Smallest pteridophyte

Largest pteridophyte
Treefem (Cyathaea) 20 mt. Aisphila (60 feet)

marine angiosperm
zostera, Thalassa

Walking fern
Adianturn caudatum

Sun fern

Aquatic ferns
Azolla, Marsilea, Salvinia

Betula utilis — Bark of this plant was used to write manuscript in ancient times.

Saprophytic angiosperms
Wullshcleigellia, Neottia (Bird’s nest orchid), Monotrapa (Indian pipe plant) Carallorhiza etc. absorb humus through fungi

Red Data Book
A book containing information of endangered plant and animals

Green Data Book
A book with list of rare plants growing in protected areas like gardens.

A stemless herb

Sulphur shower
Liberation of pollen grain in large amount by pine trees.

Killer weed
Parthenium hysterophorus (called- congress or carrot grass, belongs to family compositae)

Next >>

1. Parenchymula (Stereo- gastrula) - Leucosolenia
2. Rhagon - Higher sponges
3. Amphiblastula - Sycon
Sycon thumb15

1. Planula - Obelia, Sea Anemone
Obelia planula larva thumb9
2. Ephyra - Aurelia (Jelly fish)
ephyra larvae thumb15
3. Actinula - Some hydrozoan
4. Anthocynathus - Coral fungia
Coral fungia thumb15
5. Conaria - Velella
6. Hydratubia - Aurelia
Aurelia ephyra larvae thumb11
1. Muller’s Larva - Polycladida of Turbellaria
2. Liverfiuke (Fasciola) Miracidium - L Platyhelminths
3. Redia - Liverfiuke (Fasciola)
4. Sporocyst - Liverfiuke (Fasciola)
5. Cercaria - Liverfiuke (Fasciola)
Most primitive primate
Most primitive mollusc
chaetoderma intermedium
Most primitive Arthropod
Most primitive Annelida
Most primitive fish
Most primitive Helminth
Most primitive reptile
Most primitive Mammal
Most primitive Ape
  • Fastest Mammal — Cheetah (Actiononyx jubatus)
  • Fastest Bird — Spine tailed shift of Japan (fastest flying animal in the world)
  • Fastest Penguin — Swimmer Penguin
  • Fastest snake — Momba (Africa)
  • Fastest fish — Sail fish
  • Fastest wing beat in Insect — Foripomyla
  • Fastest flying insect — Deer bot fly
  • Fastest Protozoan — Monas
  • Fastest wing beat — Humming bird
  • Fastest reproducing protozoan — Glaucoma (six generation in 24 hours)
  • Fastest running reptile — Cnemidophorus
  • Largest mammal — Blue Whale
  • Heaviest mammal — Blue whale
  • Largest Carnivora Kodiak — Beer of Australia and Alaska
  • Largest Chiroptera — Pteropus
  • Largest Primate — Gorilla
  • Largest Ape — Gorilla
  • Largest Terrestrial Bird — Ostrich
  • Largest Wing span — Albatross
  • Largest living reptile — Turtle
  • Largest lizard — Varanus
  • Largest snake — Python
  • Largest frog — Rana goliath (Africa)
  • Largest fish — Rhinodon typus (1 8m, 9000 ibs)
  • Largest carnivore fish — White shark
  • Largest coral reef — Great barrier reef
  • Largest breed of dog — St Bernard 130 kg
  • Largest invertebrate — Giant squid
  • Largest bone — Femur (In Frog Tibiofibla)
  • Largest Muscle — Sertorisu (Buttock gluteus maximum)
  • Largest Nerve — Vagus
  • Largest cell — Egg of Ostrich
  • Tallest Mammal — Giraffe
  • Tallest poriferan — Poterian (4 feet)
  • Largest porifer — Spheciospongia vesparium (3.5 feet)
  • Longest cell — Nerve cell (Neuron)
  • Largest live fish — Sturgeon
  • Largest Egg producing fish — Mala mala
  • Largest mammal — Blue Whale Heaviest mammal — Blue whale
  • Largest Camivora Kodiak — Beer of Australia and Alaska
  • Largest R.B.C. in mammal — Elephant
  • Largest Gland — Liver
  • Largest star fish — Pycnopodia
  • Largest bivalvia — Tridacna
  • Largest Gastropod — Hermifurcus
  • Largest Shell — Bivalva giant clam
  • Largest Insect — Ant of Africa (Dinopohtera)
  • Largest Tick — Ambloyma
  • Largest Coelenteratra — Cyanea (jelly fishes)
  • Largest gestation period — Elephant
  • Largest web — Nephila
  • Largest egg — Ostrich
  • Largest vein — Inferior venacava
  • Largest fang — Gabbon viper tropical
  • Largest land mammal — Elephant
  • Largest eye (Mammal) — Horse
  • Largest Eye (Mollusc) — Squid (15 inches)
  • Largest arachnid — Giant spider
  • Largest Insect — Golianthus (Africa)
  • Largest zoo of World — Kruger (South Africa)
  • Most venomous sea snake  Hydrophis
  • Most venomous snake of world — Peninsular tiger snake of Australia.
  • Largest R.B.C. — Amphiuma
  • Largest virus — Pox virus

Most Intelligent Hominid
Man (Homo sapiens)

Second Most Intelligent Mammal

Most Intelligent ape

Heaviest bony fish

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Heaviest crab

Loudest arthropod
Male cicada

Hibernating Mammal
Bat, Squirrel, Wood chink

Hibernating bird
Poor will

Fish with four eyes

Living fossil arthropod

Living fossil fish

Living fossil reptile

Longest distance flying birds
Stemaparadisaea (Arctic tern). it covers 22,530 kms during migration.

Heaviest Bird of Prey
Vulture gryphus.

Fastest swimmer bird
Pygoscellus papua (gento penguin)

Largest egg bird
Struthio camelus (175 mm length, capacity)

Smallest egg bird
Mellisuga minima - humming bird

National Animal of Australia

National Animal of Newzealand

National Animal of Pakistan

Sharpest Memory animal

Ship of Desert

Horse of river

Tree rat
Vendiluria live in nest of bird

Blood swelling bat
Vampire bat

Most powerful Electric fish
Electrophorous electrius (370—500 volts)

Light proudcing fish
Photoble, Phaar -on Malacocephalus etc.

Sound proudcing fish
Malapterurus, Tetradon etc.

Highest Flier Birds
Cygnus cygnus-Swan Height 27,000 feet.

Largest sea bird
Diomedia epomorphora (wing stretch 80—125 inches)

Deepest Diver bird
Apteno dytes forsteri (Emperor Penguin)

Most air borne bird (Common swift)
Apus apus -9 months in air in a year.

  • Viviparous Arthropod — Scorpion
  • Viviparous urodela — Salamendra atra
  • Viviparous Salamender — Salamandra atra
  • Viviparous anura (Frog) — Nectophry noides
  • Viviparous Apoda — Thyphonectus
  • Viviparous fish — Scoliodon
  • Viviparous Reptile — Phrynosoma
  • Viviparous snake — Vipera crusseli and sea snake
  • Oviviparous Mammal — Kangaroo
  • Oviparous mammal — Echidna, Duck Bill Platypus
  • Filariforrn (Roundworm) is larvae of Ancylostoma (Hookworm)
  • Microfilariae is larvae of Wuchereria (Filarial worm)
  • Juvenileis larvae of Ascaris
  • Rhabditiformis larvae of Wuchereria Ascaris
    Also read special oviparous mammals
  • Trochophoreis larvae of Nereis (Sandworm)
  • Caterpillar is larvae of Butterfly, Moth, Silkworm
  • Red tailed larva is larvae of Dipteran
  • Maggot or Gentle is larvae of Housefly
  • Cypris is larvae of Ship barnacle (Lpas)
  • Nauplius is larvae of Prawn (Palaemon)
  • Megalopa is larvae of Crab
  • Kentrogen is larvae of Some crustaceans
  • Chrysalis is larvae of Pupa of Butterflies
  • Antlered is larvae of Caterpillar
  • Wriggler is larvae of Mosquitoes
  • Grub is larvae of Beetles and Honeybee
  • Glaucothoea is larvae of Hermit Crab
  • Alima is larvae of Squilla
  • Mysis is larvae of Prawn
  • Schizopod is larvae of Lobsters
  • Nauplius is larvae of Crustacean

  • Glochidium is larvae of Water mussel — Unio
  • Veliger is larvae of Some gastropods
  • Trocophore is larvae of Some molluscs
  • Auricularia is larvae of Sea cucumber (Holothuria)
  • Pluteus is larvae of Sea urchin Brittle star
  • Branchiolaria is larvae of Starfish
  • Dololaria is larvae of Holothurians
  • Bipinnaria is larvae of Asterias (Starfish)
  • Ophiopluteus is larvae of Echinoderm
  • Dipleura is larvae of Echinoderm

  • Tornaria is larvae of Balanogiossus
  • Ascidian tadpole is larvae of Herdmania
  • Tadpole  is larvae of Frog
  • Acaronurus is larvae of Acanthurodian
  • Ammocoete is larvae of Petromyzon
  • Axolotl is larvae of Ambystoma
  • Leptocephalus is larvae of Anguilla (Eel)


  • 22 Jun 2017
  • Smallest MammalShrew
  • Smallest BirdHumming bird of cuba (5.5 cm)
  • Smallest apeGibbon
  • Smallest boneStapes
  • Smallest Cranial NerveAbducens
  • Smallest R.B.C.Musk Deer (2.5 tm)
  • Smallest primateLemur
  • Smallest snakeLepto typhlops
  • Smallest SalamandraDesmograthus
  • Smallest freshwater fishPandaka
  • Smallest marine fishGoby fish 8-10 mm in length
  • Smallest InsectMymer
  • Smallest ProtozoanBaberia
  • Smallest MuscleArrector pilli or stapedius muscle
  • Smallest AnnelidChaetogaster
  • Smallest virusFoot mouth virus of cattle
  • Smallest PhylumPorifera
  • Smallest classAmphibia
  • Smallest cellSquamulla
  • Smallest bacteriaDialister
ACINUS GLANDS are present in Frog, rabbit, man at Skin, liver and pancreas its function is Secretes mucus and bile in liver, Secretion helps in digestion
ALVEOLAR GLANDS are present in Mammals at Skin its function is Secretes oily secretion ,(Sebaceous gland) or milk, (Mammary gland)
APOCRINE GLANDS are present in Mammals at Skin its function is Secretion similar to mammary gland
AREOLAR GLANDS are present in Primitive mammals at Rudimentary milk gland its function is Produce slight elevations.
ACCESSORY GLANDS are present in Earthworm at 17th and 19 segments its function is Secretion help in copulation
ACCESSORY GLANDS are present in Man at Male reproductive organs its function is Activation of sperms and also as lubricant Excretion
ANTENNARY GLANDS are present in Ease of antennae at Crustaceans its function is Secretion dissolve tissue of secondary host
APICAL GLANDS are present in Apical papilla at Trematoid larva its function is Secretion lubricates vagina and uterus
BARTHOLIN GLANDS (VESTIBULAR GLAND)(GLANDS OF DUVERNOY) are present in Female rabbit, Woman, at Reproductive tract its function is copulation
BOWMAN’S GLAND are present in Man at Olactory organs its function is Secretion keeps the olfactory epithelium moist
BRUNNERS GLANDS (DUODENAL GLANDS) are present in Rabbit and other mammals at Duodenum its function is Secrete mucus
BUCCAL GLANDS are present in Mammals at Oral Cavity its function is Secrete saliva
BULBO URETHRAL GLANDS (COWPER’S GLANDS) are present in Male rabbit, Man, at Alongside urethra its function is Secretion lubricates urethra for semei
BLOOD GLANDS (RED GLANDS) are present in Earthworm at Either side of pharynx its function is Secretes blood corpuscles and haemoglobin
CALEIFEROUS GLAND are present in Earthworm at Stomach its function is Secrete chalky substance
CHROMOPHIL GLAND are present in Earthworm at Roof of pharynx its function is Secrete mucin and proteinase
CLITELLAR GLANDS are present in Earthworm, Leech at Clitellum its function is Secretion help in cocoon formation
CARDIAC GLANDS are present in Man at Stomach its function is Sçcretion helps in digestion
CERUMINOUS GLANDS are present in Mammals at External ear cavity its function is Secrate ear wax (cerumen).
CILIARY GLANDS (MOLL GLANDS) are present in Man at Eye lashes its function is Secretion lubricates eye lashes
CUTANEOUS GLANDS are present in Mammals at Skin its function is  Secretion helps in lubrication of root hair.
Cutaneousglands thumb18
COLLATERAL GLANDS are present in Female cockroach at Post region of abdomen its function is Formatoin of ootheca
CONGLOBATE GLANDS (PHALLIC GLANDS) are present in Male cockroach at -do- its function is Formation of outermost covering of spermatophore
CROP GLAND are present in Pigeon at Neck its function is Secrete pigeon’s milk
CYSTOGENOUS GLANDS are present in Liver fluke at Cercarioa larva its function is Formation of cyst
DERMAL GLANDS(SWEAT GLANDS) are present in Mammals at Skin its function is Secrete sweat
DUCTLESS GLAND (ENDOCRINE GLANDS) are present in Vertebrates at in various parts its function is Secretion called hormones
FUNDIC GLANDS are present in Mammals at Stomach its function is Secretion mucus, HCI etc.
GASTRIC GLANDS are present in Vertebrates ,specially mammals at Stomach its function is Secrete pepsin, rennin and dil. HCI
GREEN GLAND are present in crestecian at Base of antennae its function is Excretory
HARDERIAN GLANDS are present in Reptiles, birds and mammals at inner side of eyes its function is secretion lubricates nictitating membrane
HOLOCRINE GLANDS are present in Mammals at Skin its function is Entire cell alongwith contained secretory product is extruded e.g., Sebaceous glands
INFRA-ORBITAL GLANDS (SALIVARY GLANDS) (ZYGOMATIC GLANDS) are present in In some mammals but not in man at In buccal cavity below orbits its function is Secretes saliva
INGUINAL GLANDS (PERINEAL GLANDS) are present in Mammals at Reproductive organs its function is Produce odorous secretoin for sexual attraction.
INK GLANDS are present in Mollusc at Visceral mass its function is Secretion dark coloured fluid for defence by forming smoke
LACHRYMAL GLANDS (TEAR GLANDS) are present in Mammals at Eyes-upper eyelid its function is Sccrete tears
LITTRE GLANDS (URETHRAL GLANDS) are present in Man and woman at Urethra.
LIVER are present in Vertebrate at Abdominal cavity its function is Secretion helps in digestion, and Absorption, formation of blood and other metabolic and protective functions
LYMPH GLANDS are present in Vertebrate at Spleen, Tonsils, Peyers patches of the intestine its function is Produce and store lymphocytes and destroy bacteria.
MAMMARY GLANDS are present in Mammals at Thorax and abdomen its function is Secrete milk
MANTLE GLAND are present in Molluscs at In mantle its function is Secretes shell
MEHIL’S GLAND are present in Platyhelminthes at Reproductive organs its function is Secretion lubricates genital tract for passage of eggs
MEIBOMIAN GLAND are present in Mammals at In eye lashes its function is Secrete oily secretion to hold tears evenly on eye ball.
MUSHROOM GLAND are present in Male cockroach at Abdomen its function is Secretion keeps sperms active
NASAL GLAND are present in Vertebrate at In nasal epithelium its function is Secretes mucus to absorb dust particles.
OLFACTORY GLAND are present in Vertebrates at In nasal epithelium its function is Other name for nasal gland secret nasal mucas
PALATINE GLAND are present in Rabbit at Palate of oral cavity its function is secreate mucas
PAROTID GLAND are present in Mammals at Buccal cavity its function is It is a salivary gland which secretes mucus
PAROTOID GLAND are present in Toad at Near tympanum its function is Poison gland of toad
Parotidglands thumb12
PECTORAL GLAND are present in Liverfiuke at Miracidium larva its function is Secretion helps larva to penetrate in the body of sheep.
PENETRATION GLAND are present in Liverfiuke at Miraciduim larva its function is Secretion helps larva to penetrate in the body of sheep.
PERINEAL GLAND are present in Rabbit at Around genital organs and anus its function is Secretes scent like secretion for sexual attraction.
PREEN GLAND are present in Birds at Base of tail its function is Secretes oily secretion to keep feathers water proof.
preengland thumb7
PROSTOMIAL GLAND are present in Leech at its function is Secretion forms ootheca
PROSTATE GLAND are present in Mammals, earthworm at Part of male reproductive organs. its function is Secretes prostatic secretion to keep sperms active.
PYLORIC GLAND are present in Mammals at Pylorie stomach its function is Secretes mainly mucus.
RED GLAND are present in Earthworm at WaIl of pharynx in earthworm its function is Forms blood
SALT GLAND are present in Mammals &‘Fishes at Skin its function is Secretes salt.
SCENT GLAND are present in Mammals at Skin around genital organs its function is Secretes scent-like substance for sexual attraction.
SEBACEOUS GLAND are present in Mammal at Skin its function is Secretes oily substance to lubricate base of hair.
SHELL GLAND are present in Platyhelminthes at Reproductive organs its function is Lubricates vagina and utreus for passage of eggs and harden the shell.
SLIME GLAND are present in Hag fish at Skin its function is Secretes mucus to keep the skin slimy.
SUDORIFIC GLAND are present in Mammal at Skin its function is Secretes sweat to cool the body.
SUBLINGUAL GLAND are present in Mammal at Below the tongue its function is It is salivary gland which secretres saliva
SUBAXILLARY GLAND are present in Mammal at Below the tongue its function is It is a salivary gland which secretes saliva.
SUBNEURAL GLAND are present in Mammal at Upper jaw its function is It is a salivary gland which secretes saliva.
SWEAT GLAND are present in Mammal at Skin its function is Secretes watery sweat to cool the body.
TARSAL GLAND are present in Prototherian at Inner side of tarsus its function is Secretes a poisonous substance for defence.
UNICELLULAR GLAND are present in at In skin and alimentary mucous epithelum its function is Secretes mucus such as globlet cell.
UTRICULAR GLAND are present in Male cockroach at Reproductive organs its function is Secretes medium for activity of sperms and forms inner wall of sperms.
  • Historia AnimaliumAristotle
  • Historia PlantariumTheophrastus
  • Origin of speciesCharles Darwin
  • Philosophic ZoolgiqueLamarck
  • Philospohica BotanicaC. Linnaeus
  • Essay on PopulationMaithus
  • Historia Generalis PlantariumJohn Ray
  • Species PlantarumC. Linnaeus (1953)
  • Systema NaturaeC. Linnaeus (1958)
  • Zoonomia ErasmusDarwin
  • The Naked ApeDesmond Morris
  • MicrographiaRobert Hooke
  • Human AnatomyGalen
  • Histoire NaturelleGuffon
  • Process of organic evolutionG.L. Stebbins
  • Osemens fossilsCuvier
  • On the structure of human bodyVesalius
  • Anatomical preparationsMalthus
  • Genesis and Evolutionary Development of lifeA.I. Oparin
  • Genetics and origin of speciesDob Zhansky
  • The double HelixWatson
  • Motu DccordisWilliam Herkey
  • De Humeranami Coparis Fabrica Labsis eptamAndreas Vesalius
  • Aministration AnatomicalGalen
The following list is by no means complete, but it may help in understanding some difficult terminology. The following abbreviations are used ; Gr., for the Greek ; L., for the Latin.
  • a-or an- (Gr., without or absent), asexual, without sex anaerobe organism that lives without free oxygen.
  • ab- (L., away from or without), aboral, away from the mouth
  • ad- (L., toward, upon, or equal), adrenal , relating to the kidney; adduct, to draw one part towards another.
  • ae (L., plural ending of singular Latin nouns ending in a) alga and algae
  • acr, acri-, acis (Gr-akris) Outermost top, point, tip
  • actin-actino (Gr., ktis-ray)
  • aer-(Gr, air), aerobe , organism that requires free air.
  • alb (L., white), albino , organism exhibiting no pigment.
  • algia (Gr., pain), neuralgia , pain in a nerve.
  • ambi- (L., both), ambidextrous , being able to use eitherhand.
  • ambly (Gr., ambulus, dull, dim) e.g. amblypoda, rangeextinct animals of the Eocene period.
  • amphi- (Gr., on both sides), Amphibia , class of vertebrateanimals living in water and on land.
  • amyl- (L., starch), amylase enzyme that changes starch to sugar.
  • ana- (Gr., back or again), anabolism , building-up processof metabolism.
  • angio- (Gr., enclosed), angiosperm , plant with enclosed or protected seeds.
  • ante- (L., before in time or space), antedorsal , placed before dorsal.
  • anti- (Gr., opposed or opposite), antitoxin , antibody opposed to or neutralizing a toxin.
  • antho- (Gr., anthos = flower), Anthozoa-flower-like coelenterates.
  • antr- (L., cavity), antrum , cavity of a bone.
  • apo- (Gr., away or separate), apodeme , ingrowth from the exo-skeleton of most arthropods.
  • aqua- (L., water), aquatic , living in water.
  • arch- (Gr., early or chief), archenteron , early digestive tract or enteron ; Archeozoic , earliest era of geologic history.
  • areol- (L., space), areolar , containing minute spaces.
  • arthr- (Gr., joint), Arthropoda , phylum of invertebrateanimals with jointed appendages or feet.
  • asco- (Gr., sac or bag), Ascomycetes , class of sac-bearing fungi.
  • -ase (suffix designating an enzyme), protease enzyme that acts on proteins.
  • aster- (Gr., star), Asteroidea , class of echinoderms resembling stars.
  • auto- (Gr., self), autosynthesis , self-building up.
  • axo, ax, axio, axon (Gr., axine-axis)-pertaining to an axis.
  • bactér- (Gr., baktron , a stick), bacteria , rod-shaped organisms.
  • basi- (Gr., base) basidiospore , spore formed at the baseof a basidium.
  • bi (Gr., base), bilateral , similar on both sides.
  • bio- (Gr., life), biology , science of life.
  • blast- (Gr., bud or young), blastoderm , primitive germlayer.
  • brachy- (Gr., short), brachydactyly , abnormal shortness of the digits.
  • brady (Gr., boadus, slow)
  • brevis (L., short), adductor brevis , short adductor muscle.
  • bryo- (Gr., moss), bryophyte , plant of the phylum comprising the mosses.
  • caec- (L., blind), cecum , ( caecum ), blind pouch.
  • calci- (L., lime), calcareous , containing lime.
  • -carp (Gr., fruit), pericarp , wall around the plant ovary.
  • cata- (Gr., down), catabolism , breaking-down process of metabolism.
  • cauda- (L., tail), caudal , relating to a tail. cay— (L., hollow), vena cava , hollow vein.
  • ceno- (Gr., recent), Cenozoic , recent era of geologic history.
  • centr- (L., center), centrosome , Léntre of activity during mitosis.
  • cephalo— (Gr., head), cephalic , relating to, or toward the head.
  • chior- (Gr., green), chlorophyll, green colouring matter of plants.
  • -chondro (Gr., green), mitochondria , small, granular parts of protoplasm.
  • chondro- (Gr., cartilage), chondrocranium , part of the cranium developing from cartilage.
  • chrom- (Gr., color), chromatophore , colour-bearing cell.
  • -cide (L., kill), insecticide , agent that kills insects.
  • cili (L., eyelash), cilia , minute, hair-like processes.
  • circum- (L., around), circumoesophageal , around the oesophagus.
  • cloaca (L., sewer), cloaca , outlet for excretions. cnido- (Gr., nettle), cnidoblast , nettle cell of certain animals.
  • coel- (Gr., hollow), coelom ( celom ), hollow body cavity.
  • coeno- (Gr., common), coenosarc , common tissue in certain animals.
  • coleo- (Gr., sheathed), Coleoptera , order of sheathedinsects, such as beetles.
  • corn- (L., together), commensalism , living together.
  • con- (L., cone), conifer , cone-bearing tree ; or (L., with), concretion , something that has grown together.
  • cotyl- (Gr., cup shaped), cotyledon , cup-shaped seed leaf.
  • creta- (L., chalk), Cretaceous , chalk period of geologic times.
  • cyan- (Gr., blue), Cyanophyta ,phylum of blue-green algae.
  • cyst- (Gr., sac), cyst, pouch or sac.
  • cyt- (Gr., cell), cytology , branch of biology studying cell structure and function.
  • de- (L., off), degenerate , to lose generative ability, dehydration.
  • dendr- (Gr., brush or tree), dendrite , tree-like structure of a nerve cell.
  • derrn- (Gr., skin), dermis , part of the skin.
  • di- (Gr., twice), diploblastic , possessing two germ layers ; dicotyledon , plant possessing two cotyledons.
  • dis- (L., away), distal , away from the point of origin.
  • -dont (Gr., odontos, tooth) or Thecodont.
  • dors- (L., back), dorsal , pertaining to the back.
  • dura- (L., tough), duramater, tough, outer covering of the brain and spinal cord.
  • e- (L., out of, without), egest , to pass outside.
  • ec- (Gr., house or environment), ecology , study of the habitats of an organism.
  • ecto- (Gr., outside), ectoderm , outer layer of cells.
  • -ectorny (Gr., cut), appendectomy , removal of the appendix.
  • -emia (Gr., blood), anaemia, blood deficiency.
  • en- (Gr., in or within), encyst, to cover with a membranous cyst.
  • endo- or ento- (Gr., within), endoderm , inner layer of cells.
  • eo- (Gr., dawn, or early), Eocene , early geologic period.
  • epi- (Gr., upon), epidermis , epithelial layer upon the dennis.
  • equi- (L., horse), Equisetineae , class to which the horsetails belong.
  • eu- (Gr., good or well), eugenic , being fitted for the production of good offspring.
  • ex- (Gr., external), exoskeleton , external skeleton.
  • extra- (L., beyond), extracellular , beyond or outside the cell.
  • -fer (L., to bear), Porifera , phylum comprising pore- bearing sponges.
  • flu- (L., thread), filiform , thread-like.
  • flex- (L,. bend), flexor , muscle that bends joints.
  • -form (L., shape), uniform , all one shape.
  • gam- (Gr., marriage), gamete , reproductive cell.
  • gastr- (Gr., stomach), gastric , pertaining to the stomach.
  • -gen (Gr., to produce), pathogenic , capable of causing disease.
  • geo- (Gr., earth), geology , science of the earth.
  • -gest (Gr., to bear or hold), ingest, to take in.
  • -glea (Gr., jelly), mesoglea, middle, jelly-like layer in certain animals.
  • glyc- (Gr., sweet or carbohydrate), glycogen animal starch.
  • gono- (Gr., seed or reproduction), gonad , organ of reproduction.
  • gymn- (Gr., naked), gymnosperm, class of seed plants whose seeds are not enclosed in an ovary.
  • haem- (Gr., blood), haemoglobin, (haemoglobin), substance in the blood.
  • hemi- (Gr., half), hemisphere , one half of a sphere.
  • hepat- (Gr., liver), hepatic, pertaining to the liver.
  • hetero- (Gr., other or different), heterogeneous, consisting of different constituents.
  • hex- (Gr., six), hexagonal, six sided.
  • homo- (Gr., same), homogeneous, of a similar kind.
  • hyal- (Gr., glass), hyaline, something that is transparent or glass-like.
  • hydr- (Gr., water), dehydrate, to remove water.
  • hymen- (Gr., membrane), Hymenoptera, order of insects with membranous wings.
  • hyper- (Gr., above), hypersensitive, especially sensitive.
  • hypo- (Gr., under), hypoglossal, situated under the tongue.
  • in- (L., in, into, not, without), invaginate , to infold one part within another.
  • infra- (L., below), infraorbital, below the orbit.
  • inter- (L., between), intercellular, between cells.
  • intra- (L., inside), intracellular, within a cell.
  • iso(Gr., equal), isothermic, having equal temperatures.
  • -itis (Gr., inflammation), appendicitis, inflammation of the appendix.
  • labi- (L., lip), labium, lip.
  • lac- (L., milk), lactose , milk sugar.
  • later- (L., side), lateral , relating to the side.
  • -lemma (Gr., covering), neurilemma , covering of a nerve.
  • lepi- (Gr., scale), Lepidoptera , order of insects with scale wings.
  • leuko- (Gr., white), leukocyte , white blood cell. lip- (Gr., fatty), lipoid , fatty substance.
  • -log (Gr., study), zoology , study of animals.
  • luci- (L., light), luciferin , light-producing material.
  • lysis (Gr., destroy), bacteriolysis , desçruction of bacteria.
  • macro- (Gr. , large), macronucleus , large nucleus.
  • mal- (Gr., bad), malnutrition , bad nutrition.
  • mega- (Gr., large), megaspore , large spore.
  • mens- (L., table), commensalism , eating at a common source of food.
  • -mere (Gr., part), micromere , small part.
  • meso- (Gr., middle), mesoderm , middle cellular layer.
  • meta- (Gr., after), metaphase , later phase of mitosis.
  • micro- (Gr., small), micronucleus , small nucleus.
  • miii- (Gr., thousand), millipede , animal with a “thousand” legs.
  • mio- (Gr., less), Miocene , less recent period in geologichistory.
  • mito- (Gr., thread), mitosis , cell division with the formation of thread-like structures.
  • mono- (Gr., one), monograph, , something written about one subject.
  • morph- (Gr., form), morphology , study of form.
  • multi- (L., many), multi coloured , of many colours.
  • muta- (L., to change), mutation , abrupt hereditary change.
  • myco- (Gr., fungus), mycology , study of fungi.
  • myxo- (Gr., slime), Myxomycophyta , phylum comprising the slime moulds.
  • nema- (Gr., thread), nematocyst , thread-like structure of coelenterates.
  • neo- (Or., young or recent), Neotropical , constituting a recent biogeographic region in the tropics.
  • nephro- (Gr., kidney), iiephridium , tubular excretory organ.
  • non- (L., not), non-irritant , not irritating.
  • noto- (Gr. notos, The back), e.g. notochord.
  • nuc- (L., kernel or centre), nucleus , central portion of a cell.
  • octo- (L., eight), octopus , animal with eight appendages.
  • oedo- (Gr., swollen), edema (oedema), swollen condition.
  • -oid (Gr., like), amoeboid ( amoeboid ), like an Amoeba.
  • oligo- (Gr., few or little), oligotrichous , having few cilia.
  • -oma(Gr., swelling or tumor), carcinoma , malignant growth (cancer).
  • omni- (L., omnis-all) e.g. omnivore.
  • Oo- (Gr., egg), oogenesis , formation and development of an egg.
  • or- (L., mouth), oral , pertaining to the mouth.
  • ortho- (Gr., straight), Orthoptera , order of insects with straight wings.
  • Os- (Gr., bone), osseQus , pertaining to bone.
  • ovi- (L., egg), ovum , egg.oviparous mammals
  • pakiio- (Gr., ancient), palaeontology , study of ancient life.
  • para- (Gr., beside), parapodia , appendages beside others.
  • path- (gr., disease), pathogenic , capable of causing disease.
  • ped- (L., feet), pedal , pertaining to the foot.
  • peri- (Gr., around), peristome , region around an opening or mouth.
  • phaeo- (Or., dark or brown), Phaeophyta , phylum of brown algae.
  • phago- (Or., to eat), phagocyte , cell that eats or destroys.
  • phor- (Or., to bear), sporophore , part of a sporophyte that bears spores.
  • photo- (Or., light), photosynthesis , formation of carbohydrates in the presence of light.
  • -phil! (Or., loving), thermophile , heat-loving organism.
  • phyco- (Or., alga, or seaweed), Phycomycetes , alga like fungus.
  • -phyll (Or., leaf), mesophyll , middle part of a leaf.
  • physio- ( Or., nature), physiology , study of the nature or function of living matter.
  • -phyte (Or., plant), sporophyte , spore-bearing plant.
  • -pkism (Or., formed), ectoplasm , outer region of the cell cytoplasm.
  • platy- (Or., nat), Platyhelminthes, phylum of Flatworms.
  • plio- (Or., more), Pliocene , more recent geologic period.
  • poly- (Or., many), Polymorphous , having many for iris.
  • post- (L., after), postnatal , after birth.
  • -porous (Or., foot), octopus , animal with eight feet or appendages.
  • pre- (L. before), prenatal , before birth.
  • pro- (Or., before), prostomium , portion ofthe head situated before the mouth of certain worms and molluscs.
  • proto- (Or., first of essential), protoplasm , essential material of all plant and animal cells.
  • prox- (L., nearest), proximal , nearest.
  • pseudo- (Or., false), pseudopodia , false feet.
  • -ptero (Or., wing), Diptera , order of insect with two wings.
  • re- (I. ., again or back), regenerate , to form again.
  • ren- (I.., kidney), renal , pertaining to the kidney.
  • rept- (I. ., creeping), reptile , creeping animal.
  • retro- (I. ., backward), retrolingual , backward from the tongue.
  • rhabdo (Or., rhabdos-rod), e.g. rhab, possessing straight rod-like intestine.
  • rhizo- (Or., root), Rhizopoda , subclass of animals with root-like appendages.
  • rhodo- (Or., red), Rhodophyta , phylum of red algae.
  • roti- (I.., wheel), rotifer , animal with a wheel-like structure on its head.
  • -sare (Or., flesh), ectosarc , outer flesh or layer of protoplasm.
  • schizo- (Or., to divide), Schizomycophyta , phylum of fission fungi (bacteria).
  • scler- (Or., hard), sclerotic , hard.
  • -scope (Or., see) microscope , instrument enabling one to see minute ‘objects.
  • -see! (I. ., to cut), dissect , to cut.
  • -semi- (L., half), semicircle , half of a circle.
  • sept- (L., wall), septum , partition.
  • set- (L., bristle), seta , bristle-like structure.
  • sinu- (L., hollow), sinus , hollow cavity.
  • soma- (Gr., body), somatoplasm , protoplasm of the body.
  • spor- (Gr., seed), spore , reproductive structure.
  • stoma- (Gr., opening), stoma , opening, such as is found in leaves.
  • sub- (Gr., under), submaxillary , under the maxilla.
  • super- (L., over or above), superior , higher, upper, or above.
  • supra- (L., above), suprarenal , above the kidney .
  • sym- (Gr., together), symbiosis , living together.
  • syn- (Gr., together), synapsis , association or union.
  • taxo-, taxi-, taxis (Gr., taxis-arrangement).
  • telo- (Gr., complete or end), telophase , end stage of cell division.
  • terato- (Gr., marvel, or monster),teratology, study ofmonstrosities or deviations from the normal.
  • tetra- (Gr., four), tetrapod , something that has four feet.
  • -thec (Gr., case), spermatheca , sperm-case.
  • thermo- (Gr., heat), thermotropism , reaction to heat.
  • thigmo- (Gr., contact), thigmotropism , reaction to contact.
  • -tome (Gr., to cut), microtome , instrument to cut small sections.
  • toxi- (Gr., poison), toxin , poison.
  • trans- (Gr., across), transfer , to carry across.
  • tri- (Gr., three), trilobed , having three lobes.
  • tricho- (Gr., hair), trichocyst , hair-like structure.
  • trop- (Gr., reaction), tropism , reaction to stimuli.
  • ultra- (L., beyond), ultramicroscopic, so small that it is beyond the microscope.
  • uni- (L, one), unilateral , on one side.
  • -ur (Gr., tail, Anura , animals without tails.
  • vas- (L., vessel), vas deferens , vessel to transmit male sex cells.
  • ventr- (Gr., belly), ventral , pertaining to the lower or belly side.
  • ti- (L., to turn), Vorticella , animal that turns as it moves.
  • xantho- (Gr., xanthos, yellow) : eg. xanthophyll, yellowpigment.
  • xiphi- (Gr., xiphos, a sword) : e.g. xiphiosura, king crabs the hind part bearing a long tail spine
  • xen-, xeno- (Gr., xen-strange-different)
  • xero- (Gr., xeros-dry) e.g. xerophyte e.g. climatic plant
  • Largest zoo in world is in Krusger (S. Africa)
  • Largest collection of animals is in Zoological garden of Berlin (Germany).
  • Largest single Museum of world — The American
  • Museum of National History — New York, U.S.A.
  • World largest Aquarium — Monterey Bay Aquarium California U.S.A.
  • Famous city of Fossils — Pompie (Italy)


  • 16 Jun 2017
  • Agoraphobia — fear of open space
  • Ailurophobia — fear of cats
  • Androphobia — fear of men
  • Anthophobia — fear of flowers
  • Acrophobia — fear of heights
  • Algophobia — fear of pain
  • Bipilophobia — fear of books
  • Bacteriophobia — fear of germs
  • Chiophobia — fear of snow
  • Cryophobia — fear of ice
  • Claustrophobia — fear of being in an enclosed place
  • Cynophobia — fear of dogs
  • Entomophobia — fear of insects
  • Erythrophobia — fear of blushing
  • Hematophobia — fear of blood
  • Hippophobia — fear of horses
  • Hydrophobia — fear of water
  • Ichthyophobia — fear of fish
  • Limnophobia — fear of lakes
  • Lyssophobia — fear of becoming insane
  • Musophobia — fear of mice
  • Monophobia — fear of feeling alone
  • Mysophobia — fear of dirt and contamination
  • Nyctöphobia — fear of dark
  • Ophidiophobia — fear of snakes
  • Potamophobia — fear of rivers
  • Pteronophobia — fear of feathers
  • Pyrophobia — fear of fire
  • Phonophobia — fear of noise
  • Xenophobia — fear of stranger
  • Poisonous Lizard — Heloderma
  • Poisonous fish — Stone fish
  • Poisonous spider — Lectodectus (black widows).
  • Most venomous Indian snake — King cobra
  • Most poisonous snake — Peninsular tiger snake
  • Poisonous sea Snake — Hydrophis bechbeichei
  • Poisonous coelenterate — Chiromax
  • Poisonous Arachnid — Lectodectus
Any small opening or orifice pore, or perforation is called foramen.

Foramen filum terminale - It is the opening for the terminal filament called filum terminale of spinal cord of a vertebrate.
Foramen infra orbital - It is located beneath the orbit in man.
Foramen Interventricular - (foramen of Monro) It is y-shaped passage which connect the third ventricle of brain with the lateral ventricles.
Foramen intervertebral - The opening formed by the two notches of the adjacent vertebrae through which the spinal nerve makes its exit.
Foramen incisive - It is present anteriorly between the palatine processes near the incisor teeth in mammals.
Foramen ovale - An opening in the sphenoid for the passage of nerves and blood vessels.
Foramen ovale - (Embroyology) An opening in the foetal heart partition in between two artria.
Foramen obturator - A large opening in the pelvis, between the ischium and pelvis, that gives passage to vessels and nerves.
Foramen optic - It is located medially in the orbitosphenoid bone of eye orbit of vertebrate through which optic nerve and ophthalmic artery passes.
Foramen Lecerum aflerius - Present in the mammalian cranium between the orbito sphenoid and alisphenoid bones making a passage for the occulomotor, trochlear and abducens nerves and the ophthalmic branch of the thgeminal nerve.
Foramen Lacerum medium - An opening in the mammalian skull for the passage of the internal carotid artery between the basisphenoid bone and the tympanic bulla.
Foramen lacerum Posters - An opening in the mammalian skull between the periotic and the exoccipital bones for the passage of the glossopharyngeal, vagus; spinal accessory nerves and the internal jugular vein.
Foramina of Luschka - These are two openings on the lateral side of roof of the fourth ventricle of mammalian brain, for communicating with the subarachnoid spaces of meninges.
Foramen of Magnedie - The median aperture of the fourth ventricle of brain.
Foramen magnum - A large oval opening in the occipital bone at the base of cranium that allows passage of the spinal cord, accessory nerves and vertebral arteries. ,
Foramen nutrient - It is present in the tibio fibula bone of frog provides passage for artery.
Foramen premium - It is a temporary interatrial opening
Foramen of panizzae - A small opening connecting the two systemic aortae of crocodile or any other reptile resembling the crocodile. It is situated at a point just beyond the semilunar valves where the two aortic arches cross each other.
Foramen of Winslow - (Epiploic foramen) An aperture of peritoneal cavity formed by fold of the peritoneum and located between given area and stomach
Foramen rotundum - An opening in the sphenoid bone of mammalian skull through which the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve emerges from the brain.
Foramen spinosum - Opening in the sphenoid bone of mammalian skull
Foramen supraorbital - An opening in the supraorbital margin and beneath the eye brow of the mammalian skull, it transmits the supraorbital nerve and blood vessels.
Foramen of triosseum - An opening enclosed by the scapula, clavicle and coracoid of a bird at the point where these three bones meet. The tendon of the minor pectoral muscle, which raises these three bones meet. The tendon of the minor pectoral muscle, which raises the wing, passes through this opening.
Foramen vertebral - The central large opening of each vertebra of vertebrates in which lies the spinal cord.
The following list contains some important terms in biology and their first users.
  • Autoecology 
    Schroeter and Krichmer
  • Biology 
  • Bacteria 
  • Bioecology 
    Shelford and Clements
  • Cell 
    Robert Hooke (In Cork)
  • Cell wall 
    Robert Hooke
  • Cell membrane 
    Nageli and Cramer (1855)
  • Plasmalemma 
    Plowe (1931)
  • Protoplasm 
    Purkinje in animalcell Dujardin namedSarcode to protoplasm
  • Cytoplasm and Nucleoplasm 
  • Mitochondria
    Benda (1897)
  • Chioroplast 
  • Mitochondria 
  • Plastid 
  • Golgi body 
    Camillo Golgi
  • Lysosome 
    Christain de Duve
  • Ribosome 
    Claude and Palade
  • Endoplasmic reticulum 
  • Nucleus 
    Robert Brown
  • Centriole 
    Van Beneden (1880)
  • Chromosome 
    W. Waldeyer 1888
  • Polytene Chromosome 
  • Lampbrush Chromosome 
  • Chromonema 
    Veidovsky (1812)
  • Nucleic Acid 
  • Chlorophyll 
    Pelletier and Caventor
  • Periplast 
  • Mitosis 
    W. Hemming (1882)
  • Meiosis 
    Farmer and Moore
  • Unit Membrane 
    Robertson (1956)
  • Nucleoplasm 
  • Prophase 
  • Metaphase 
  • Anaphase 
  • Telophase 
  • Coacervates 
  • Ecology 
    Reiter 1885; First Haeckel (1886)
  • Ecosystem 
    Richter (1888) Credit Tansley
  • Enzyme 
  • Genetics
    William Bateson
  • Gene 
    Johannson (1909)
  • Hormone 
    Starling (1906)
  • Microspheres 
    Sydney Fox
  • Origin of Species - Charles Darwin
  • Physiology 
    Jean Femet
  • Protein 
    Berzelius (1838)
  • Respiration 
  • Secretion 
    Baylis and Starling
  • Survival of Fittest 
    Herbert Spencer
  • Use and disuse of organs - John Lamarck
  • Vitamin 
  • Virus 
  • Protozoa 
    Gold Fuss
  • Porifera 
    Robert Grant
  • Parazoa 
  • Coelenterata 
  • Mollusca 
  • Annelida 
  • Arthropoda 
    Von Shield
  • Echinodermata 
    Jacob Klein
  • Cnidaria 
  • Entamoeba 
  • Vertebrata 
  • Synecology 
    Schroeter and Kirchmar
  • Systematics 
    C. Linnaeus
  • Taxonomy 
  • New Systematics 
    Julian Huxley
  • Genera 
    John Ray
  • Species 
    John Ray
  • Phylogeny 
    Lamarck and concept was established by Haeckel.
  • Phylum 
  • Sub-Phylum 
  • Chordata 
  • Class 
  • Order 
  • Family 
    John Ray
  • Monera 
    Doughtery and Allen (1960)
  • Procaryontaand Eucaryonta 
    Folt (1950)
  • Prokaryota and Eukaryota 
    Stanier and Van Neil (1962)
  • Fungus 
    Gaspard Bauhin (1560-1624)


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